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Author of 

Under the Cottonwoods, " Winning or Losing?" Land 
of the Laurel," "The Story of Daniel Boone," "A 
Practical History of Music," "History of Pendle- 
ton County, W. Va. ," "History of Preston 
County, W. Va. ," "History of Monroe 
County, W. Va.," "History of 
Highland County, Virginia." 


Staunton, Virginia 
The McClure Co., Inc. 

19 17 

w< > :? ■«■■ 




R 1919 

Copyright, 1918 

By The McClure Co., Inc. 

All Rights Reserved 


Chapter Page 

Introduction v 

1 . Geography of Bath 1 

II. Discovery and Settlement 10 

III. The Lewis Land Grant 22 

IV. Areas of Settlement 36 

V. The Mineral Springs 42 

VI. Early Political History 51 

VII. Roads and Road Builders 56 

VIII. Life in the Pioneer Days 62 

IX. Ten years of Indian Wars 79 

X. The Point Pleasant Campaign 88 

XI. Bath During the Revolution 94 

XII. Selim the Algerine 101 

XIII. Efforts Toward a New County 104 

XIV. Organization of Bath 107 

~ XV. The Surnames of Bath Ill 

XVI. A List of Early Marriages 127 

XVII. Seventy Years of Bath History 134 

XVIII. Bath in the War of 1861 143 

XIX. The Bath Squadron 146 

XX. Roster of Confederate Soldiers 152 

XXI. Cloverdale 162 

XXII. The Calfpasture Valley 167 

XXIII. The Bath of Today 172 

XXIV. Alleghany County 176 

XXV. The Families of Greater Bath 186 



|ATH has a small number of people, and a considerable 
share of this small number is a new element. To many 
individuals of the latter class a history of the county will 
appeal very little. And since the circulation of such a 
book must necessarily be small, the price of a full and comprehensive 
history would unavoidably be so high as to be prohibitive to persons 
of small means. The choice before us was whether to bring out a 
very small edition of a very high priced book, or a larger edition of a 
comparatively low priced book. If the second choice were taken, 
only a small volume was possible. And if the volume were to be 
small, it was clearly out of the question to cover as much ground as is 
attempted in a local history of comprehensive scope. 

For the above reasons we confine ourselves to a presentation of 
the more striking and important features in the story of this county. 
But while this was the only course possible, we have sought to treat 
these features with all the fullness the limits of the book would per- 
mit. And since the present volume is a county history in a somewhat 
abbreviated form, we entitle it "The Annals of Bath," rather than "A 
History of Bath." 

Owing to the necessary limitation in space, it has been impossible 
to give genealogic records of the old families of the county. A partial 
account is all the size of the book will permit. Yet this account 
would cover more pages, if there had been a more general response to 
our requests for information. What was not furnished to us we could 
not put in, and we disclaim all responsibility for its non-appearance. 

But if, in a commercial sense, this county seemed only a moderate- 
ly promising field for a local history, it remains very true that Bath 
is one of the best known counties of the Old Dominion. It is one of 
the older counties in the Alleghany belt, and it lies on a natural high- 
way of travel and commerce. The story of its evolution is one of much 

The present work was begun in the fall of 1912. Joseph T. Mc- 
Allister, of Hot Springs, had for a long while been collecting material 
for a history of the county. But his favorable opinion of the author's 

History of Highland County led him to invite the undersigned to his 
home, so as to use his collection and write the history himself. The 
original manuscript was completed the next July at the house of 
George W. Wallace on the Cowpasture. Publication being much 
delayed, and the author coming into possession of new and valuable 
information, a new and enlarged manuscript has been prepared. 

The question of writing a history of Alleghany County was dis- 
cussed with several friends, and was decided to be unpromising in a 
commercial aspect. But with a view of supplying the lack in a par- 
tial way, a special chapter has been added to the new manuscript. 

Illustrations were repeatedly solicited, and would have added to 
the interest and attractiveness of the book. But as only one was 
offered, it has been decided to issue the book without any. This 
will explain the non-appearance of the cut spoken of on page 72. 

The most sincere thanks of the author are extended to all persons 
who have in any way contributed to the success of this enterprise. In 
particular, he makes warm and grateful acknowledgment to Joseph 
T. McAllister, George W. Wallace, and Houston H. Byrd for their 
very substantial assistance, and to Boutwell Dunlap, of San Francis- 
co, for valuable data relating to several of the early families. Mr. 
Dunlap is not only a historian of repute, but is a descendant of Cap- 
tain Alexander Dunlap, the earliest settler on the Calfpasture. 

Oren F. Morton. 
Staunton, Va., August 22, 1917. 



N ALL the states of the American Union there are but two 
counties named Bath. One is in Virginia and the other 
is in the daughter state of Kentucky. The older of 
these came into actual existence May 1, 1791. It was 
then larger than any present county in either of the Virginias. It is 
still larger than the average of the 155 counties in the two states. 

Until West Virginia became a fact, Bath lay near the center of 
the Old Dominion. It now lies against the western border of the 
parent state. Near its southwestern angle it is crossed by the thirty- 
eighth parallel of north latitude and also by the third meridian west 
from Washington. In outline the county is a fairly regular quadran- 
gle, the four corners pointing very nearly north, east, south, and west. 
Between the northern and southern corners the diagonal distance is 
27 miles, and between the eastern and western corners the distance is 
30 miles. The area is placed at 548 square miles, or 352,720 acres. 
The airline distance from the county seat to the state capital is 135 
miles, the direction being a little south of east. The city of Washing- 
ton is 160 miles away, the direction being northeast. 

The western boundary of Bath is the central ridge of the Appa- 
lachians, sometimes called the Alleghany Front. It divides the wa- 
ters coursing toward the Atlantic from those running toward the 
Mississippi. This massive uplft is a natural boundary. On the 
eastern side of the county, Walker's Mountain, Sideling Hill, and 
Mill Mountain take turns in forming the border line. These three 
elevations run almost precisely in the same direction. From the top 
of Walter's Mountain the line leaps squarely across a very narrow- 
valley to the top of Sideling Hill. Four miles southward it passes 
with equal abruptness across a still narrower valley to the summit of 
Mill Mountain. And yet this complex eastern border opens to the 
base line only at the one point where Panther Gap provides an easy 
passage for a railroad and an outlet for the waters of Mill Creek. 


On the other hand the northern and southern county lines are entirely 
artificial. Bath is simply a cross-section of the great valley which 
extends nearly all the way from New River to the Potomac. The 
bordering counties are Highland, Augusta, Rockbridge, Alleghany, 
Greenbrier, and Pocahontas, the last two lying in West Virginia. 

The Alleghany Front is lofty throughout, reaching in Paddy 
Knob at the northern corner of Bath an altitude of 4500 feet. With- 
in the county the most distinctive uplift is the divide running length- 
wise through the center, separating Bath into two principal divisions. 
For more than half the way this divide is Warm Springs Mountain, 
which enters from the south and terminates near Burnsville. Jack 
Mountain enters from the north and runs a little past the other ridge, 
the distance from crest to crest being one mile. From Duncan's Knob, 
Jack Mountain drops quite suddenly into the lower continuation 
known as Wilson's Mountain. From the same knob a saddle reaches 
across to Warm Springs Mountain and thus preserves a continuity of 
watershed in the central divide. Near the center of the county Warm 
Springs Mountain forks, the western and lower arm, known as Val- 
ley Mountain, running nearly parallel with the eastern, at a distance 
from summit to summit of two miles, and passing into Alleghany 
county. The portion lying in Bath is pierced by no fewer than six 

Midway between the Alleghany Front and the central divide 
is a very conspicuous elevation, which to the north of the place where 
it opens to give passage to Back Creek, is styled Back Creek Moun- 
tain. Southward, it is known as Bollar Mountain. Westward of 
this ridge is Little Mountain, separating the valley of Little Back 
Creek from that of Back Creek proper. Eastward are Rocky Ridge, 
Warwick's Mountain, and Callison Ridge. A little east of Warm 
Springs Mountain is Tower Hill, a continuation of the Bullpasture 
Mountain of Highland. From the Bullpasture gap on the county 
line it runs 10 miles southward to a bend in Dry Run. Southward 
from Thompson's Creek to the line of Alleghany County, the space 
for five miles east of the crest of Warm Springs Mountain is 
crowded with a succession of much lower uplifts. Beard's Moun- 
tain, the outermost and highest of these, lies in the same axis with 
Shenandoah Mountain, though separated from it by a long depres- 
sion. Shenandoah Mountain, after holding for 60 miles an imposing 


height and breadth, breaks down very abruptly after penetrating 
Bath only six miles. The Sister Knobs mark the forked southern end. 
Southward are hill-ridges walling in the basin of Stuart's Creek. 
Near Millboro Springs begins the higher and ragged uplift of Rough 
Mountain, which terminates all at once in Griffith Knob at a bend 
of the Cowpasture on the Alleghany line. 

Bath is in fact mainly occupied with mountain ridges, which 
vary a good deal in heighth, length and contour. To a person follow- 
ing any of the larger watercourses, the river-valley often appears nar- 
rower than is truly the case, because of foothill ridges rising sharply 
from the edge of the bottom land. Sometimes, as on the upper Cow- 
pasture, these heavy bluffs present toward the river abrupt faces of dry, 
slaty soil, supporting a thin growth of small pines and a little hard- 
wood underbrush. 

As is generally the case in Appalachian America, the mountains 
of Bath occur in long ridges and present outlines of much grace and 
symmetry. This is particularly true of Walker's Mountain, the 
skyline of which is almost as horizontal as a house roof. Rough 
Mountain is quite exceptional in this respect. 

The tendency of the Appalachian ridges to run out, or to be in- 
terrupted by watergaps, is of much practical importance. Routes of 
travel were thereby suggested to the white pioneers and to the In- 
dians before them. The breaking down of Shenandoah Mountain 
offers a line of easy approach from the Valley of Virginia to the Cow- 
pasture at Fort Lewis. Panther Gap and the pass at Griffith Knob 
presented lines of approach to the settlers who occupied Stuart's 
Creek and the lower Cowpasture. From the Cowpasture, Thomp- 
son's Creek opens a way through a succession of minor ridges to the 
very foot of Warm Springs Mountain. A depression in the skyline 
of the latter indicated to the early comers the most advantageous place 
for crossing that barrier. Then again, the gaps in Valley Mountain 
offered a choice of routes into the lower lying valley of Jackson's 
River. In short, physical geography has placed Bath on a through 
line of travel between the East and the West. 

The uplift in the center of the county divides Bath into the two 
main valleys of Jackson's River and the Cowpasture. The more im- 
portant sub-valleys of the western division are Warm Springs valley 
and the valleys of Big and Little Back Creeks. Those of the eastern 


division are Dry Run, Stuart's Creek, Porter's Mill Creek, and 
Padd's Creek. In addition to these is the basin of Mill Creek, which 
drains into the Calfpasture and not into the Cowpasture. 

Jackson's River has a course of some 20 miles before touching 
Bath, and enters this county as a considerable stream. Within Bath 
it is swollen by Muddy Run, Chimney Run, Warm Springs Run, and 
Cedar Creek, but most of all by Back Creek. To the point of junc- 
tion, Back Creek has pursued quite as long a course as the main 
stream itself but through a narrower valley. 

A half mile south of the Highland boundary the Cowpasture is 
joined by the Bullpasture, which is the longer and larger of the two 
streams, and is even larger than Jackson's River at the county line. 
The united waters also pursue a longer course within the confines of 
Bath. But after passing into Alleghany, and at length reaching the 
point a little below Clifton Forge where it is joined by the Cowpas- 
ture, Jackson's River gains upon its companion both in length and 
volume. It is therefore regarded as the head branch of the James, 
which is the title the waters assume below the confluence. In colonial 
days this section of the James was known as the Fluvanna. The 
chief tributaries of the Cowpasture are the five mentioned in a preced- 
ing paragraph. None of these, except Stuart's Creek, is ordinarily of 
much size. Dry Run is so named because in its lower course there is 
no visible water except in a wet season. 

The running waters of Bath are nearly always rapid as well as 
clear. In the sandstone areas are excellent springs of cool freestone 
water. The caverns which underlie the limestone belts attract the 
rainfall into underground channels. Near the base level of the val- 
leys in which these belts occur, the waters reappear as powerful, never- 
failing springs. Except in times of flood, fordable places occur in all 
the rivers, although bridges sometimes obviate the need of taking the 
rocky bed. 

Rock formations are called stratified, when they are due to the 
marl, sand, clay, or gravel which has been deposited by water, es- 
pecially that of tidal streams. Because of the pressure of newer de- 
posits above, these soft materials finally solidify into hard rock. The 
internal heat of the earth assists in this process, and when intense it 
works a change in structure, causing the rock to be of the kind known 
as metamorphic. Of this latter nature is the flinty sandstone, layers 


of which, bent into an almost vertical position, may be seen in some 
of the watergaps. The stratified rocks of Bath are among the oldest 
known to geology. On the eastern and western borders they are of 
the Devonian series. There are also small areas of these in the in- 
tervening ridges. Elsewhere, the greater portion of the county is 
covered by the older Silurian series. Older yet is the narrow rim of 
Ordovician rocks in the Warm Springs valley. This rim incloses a 
large, oval-shaped area of the yet older Cambro-Ordovician rocks. 
Since all these formations are older than the Carboniferous beds, it 
is scarcely worth while to look for coal, unless on the extreme western 
border. But the deposits of iron ore and building stones are of much 
extent and value, although as yet undeveloped. There is also some 

Layers of hard sandstone form the cores of the steeper ridges and 
tell us why these mountains exist. They protect the adjacent softer 
layers, which are more susceptible to wear and tear. It is mainly in 
the valleys and on the broad-topped elevations that we find the flaky 
slates and the limestones. The former blister from the action of 
frost and sun. The latter dissolve under the honeycombing effect of 
rainwater charged with carbonic and vegetable acids. Caverns, which 
are underground waterways, are thus eaten into the limestone beds, 
the presence of which is shown by the sinkholes on the surface above. 
But the limestone areas in Bath are not extensive. They occur chief- 
ly in the Warm Springs valley and around Burnsville. Shale, more 
commonly termed slate, is a characteristic feature of the sterile bluffs 
which sometimes hem in the fertile bottoms of alluvial origin. 

The soils of Bath differ very much in quality. First in value is 
the deep, dark loam of the river bottoms. The soil of the limestone 
belts is likewise superor and is particularly suited to grass. Much of 
the upland soil elsewhere is light in color and sandy in texture. Tight 
or loose stones, sometimes waterworn, occur everywhere, but in vary- 
ing frequency. It is only the bottoms, the bench lands, and limited 
portions of the higher levels that have been in demand for tillage. A 
belt of bench and bottom is sometimes a mile from side to side. Yet 
such a strip is not continuous, bold heights sometimes coming close 
to the river on either side, as in the case of Jackson's River above 
Fort Dinwiddie. Furthermore, the bottoms are confined to the two 
rivers and the lower courses of their larger affluents. 


With respect to the climate, Bath is highly favored. The ele- 
vation gives it a more temperate air than is found in the same latitude 
on the Atlantic or the plains of the West. The Alleghany Front 
breaks the force of the northwesters that have such free play through- 
out the Mississippi basin. It also causes a lower degree of humidity 
on the eastern side than on the western. Shenandoah Mountain 
scatters the east wind that is so trying along the seacoast. Bath has 
not the damp air that one would expect in a mountain region. It has 
not the close summer atmosphere and the winter keenness of the sea- 
shore, nor the accentuated extremes of heat and cold that are a well 
known feature of the Western climate. The air movement is less 
than in either of the other sections, high winds being rare. The win- 
ters are not usually of a severe type, the summers and falls are par- 
ticularly delightful, and the air is pure, healthful and invigorating. 
There is, in fact, a fine climate at all seasons. 

To be more precise, the climate of Warm Springs valley, with its 
altitude of 2200 feet, is but slightly below the average for the county. 
In this locality the mean temperatures for winter, spring, summer, 
and fall are 31, 51, 69, and 53 degrees. The yearly average, which 
is 51 degrees, is about the same as at Harrisburg in Pennsylvania, or 
Lincoln in Nebraska, although the climate of this valley is more reg- 
ular than that of the other places. The yearly rainfall is 42 inches, 
including the snow, which in an unmelted form amounts to 26 
inches. Along the two rivers, especally the Cowpasture, the climate 
is perceptibly warmer, the altitudes being less by from 500 to 1000 

In the old-time solitudes of Bath there was a great deal of animal 
life. The buffalo and the elk have been gone much more than a cen- 
tury. The wolf, once a great scourge to the young livestock, is 
locally extinct, thanks to the large bounty that was maintained so 
long as he was here. The name of Panther Gap keeps us from for- 
getting that the puma, called "painter" by the pioneer, was once a 
co-tenant with the wolf. The fox and the wildcat, and an occasion- 
al black bear still linger, and now and then an eagle disports himself 
in the air. A very few deer remain in the more extensive woodlands. 
jret even the gray squirrel and cottontail are now comparative rare. 
Other small mammals are the raccoon, the opossum, the woodchuck, 
the ^kunk, the muskrat, the chipmunk, and the bat. Turkeys, pheas- 


ants, quails, and other game birds are now rather few, and the small 
migrants that appear in the spring are not so numerous as the true 
interests of the farmer demand. Rattlesnakes and copperheads are 
few, unless in their regular haunts. The clear streams contain some 
trout, bass, perch, suckers, and eels. The former abundance of wild 
game is reflected in the following rhyme, written of William Wilson 
of Bolar Run: 

Old Wilson could sit at his door, 

And count buffalo, elk, and deer by the score. 

As is true in all Appalachia, the hills and valleys of Bath take 
naturally to a forest covering. The deciduous trees, such as maples, 
chestnuts, hickories, sycamores, willows, and oaks, heavily prepon- 
derate. Small pines cling to the dry soil of certain river-hills. The 
larger specimens on the mountain sides are mostly killed about fifteen 
years before the date of this book, by an insect pest, but many of 
their barkless trunks are yet standing. A varied undergrowth of 
shrubs and small trees is now more in evidence than in the time of 
the pioneer. Some of the more conspicuous wild fruits are the black- 
berry, the huckleberry, the teaberry, and the common and mountain 
raspberries. The wild grapevine grows to large dimensions. 

Outside of the bottoms and the small lime stone area, the soils 
of Bath are not so favorable to making a good grass sod as in the more 
elevated county of Highland. Hence tillage farming is more con- 
spicuous than there. The leading field crops are corn, grain, and hay, 
and large yields are obtained on the bottoms. The Fort Lewis farm 
has produced 2340 bushels of wheat in a single season. Orchard 
fruits, particularly apples, have always been grown for home use, but 
only of late has there been much attention to the producing of either 
large or small fruits on a commercial scale. The county is well suit- 
ed to this branch of agriculture. An apple tree just over the High- 
land line was set out in 1765 by William Wilson, and in 1908 was 
still yielding 35 bushels of good spitzenbergs. 

The scenic beauty of Appalachia is at once recognized by the 
observant traveler. There is an absence of monotony, because the 
prospect distinctly varies from mile to mile. When the woods are in 
summer foliage, the contour of the numerous ridges assumes the most 
graceful appearance. The emerald verdure of the meadows and 


pastures then renders the open ground more pleasing to the eye than 
in regions where grass is not spontaneous. 

The view from Flag Rock, on the crest-line of Warm Springs 
Mountain, can scarcely be surpassed with respect to scenic loveliness 
and interest. Looking southeastward, the eye passes over the succes- 
sion of comparatively low ridges on the nearer side of the Cowpas- 
ture. Turning nearly to the east one gazes through a low gap into 
the valley of Thompson's Creek, and has distant glimpses of the 
Millboro turnpike among the fields around Fairview and Bath Alum. 
Beyond the winding course of the unseen Cowpasture there comes 
into view, for its entire length, the irregular summit and fluted 
slope of Rough Mountain. Beyond is the far smoother outline of 
Mill Mountain. Still further beyond, and of a pearly hue from the 
effect of distance, are the two House Mountains toward Lexington. 
Their short, straight summits and their abrupt endings loom well 
above the deeper-hued crest-level of the prominence in front. Yet 
the final sky-line in the east is not reached until one makes out the pal<* 
Blue Ridge, 40 miles away, and dominated by the towering Peaks 
of Otter. Looking more nearly east, and in a line with the view 
down Thompson's Creek, the observer peers into the deep notch of 
Panther Gap. In front of and to the right of this opening are the two 
uplifts on either side of Stuart's Creek. Beyond is Sideling Hill and 
then comes the remarkable horizontal crest of Walker's Mountain. 
A dozen miles awav in the northeast are the Sister Knobs, marking 
the south end of Shenandoah Mountain and standing like sentinels 
above the low expanse in front. Tn the same direction, but at more 
than twice the distance, is Elliott's Knob, one of the loftiest peaks in 
Virginia. Turning about and facing the point of sunset, we behold 
another rapid alternation of forested heights, the Alleghany Front 
occupying the horizon. In the foreground is an exquisite panorama 
of Warm Springs valley, which lies a thousand feet below. Whether 
one is looking eastward or westward, mountain rises behind mountain 
at intervals that are seeminglv short. Because these heights are for- 
est-clad, and thus screen the open lands between them, the outlook is 
almost as primeval to us as it was to the pathfinder of nearly two 
centuries ago. And when the whole prospect is bathed in the clear, 
bright atmosphere of a Virginia sky, the picture receives a touch of 


Among the natural curiosities of Bath is Ebbing Spring, three 
miles south of Williamsville. Intermittent springs are usually quite 
regular as to ebb and flow. But this one is so abnormal that the 
McClintic family, whose mansion lies within a few rods, have never 
been so fortunate as to see the waters at the exact moment of high 
tide. The rush comes with a considerable noise, yet during the times 
of ebb there is still considerable outflow. The stream once ran a mill, 
and so important was then the period of high water that when it 
came in the night, the miller would get up and set his burrs in mo- 
tion. Two miles north is Meadow Lake, covering more than an acre 
of the Cowpasture bottom. It is fed by a powerful spring, and is the 
source of Spring Branch, which is capable of turning a very large over- 
shot wheel. It is thought that the spring is simply a reappearance of 
Cowpasture waters. At all events, the Cowpasture at ordinary stages 
is nearly dry for several miles above the mouth of the Bullpasture. 
Near Wallawhatoola Spring the Cowpasture seems again to lose a 
share of its visible volume, recovering it in a large spring near Nim- 
rod Hall. 

In a bluff on this river, near Windy Cove church, is Blowing 
Cave, mentioned in Jefferson's Notes on Virginia. The cavern 
has been explored a considerable distance and seems to have a second 
opening. There is a strong outward draft in hot weather and a 
strong inward draft in cold weather. The explanation is simple. 
Any deep cave has a uniform temperature the year round. This 
temperature is practically the same as the yearly average of the sur- 
face above. Such a cave in Bath would have a constant temperature, 
day and night, winter and summer, of from 50 to 52 degrees. So 
when the outer air is warmer than that of the cave, the heavy cold 
air rushes out, giving place to an equal weight of the lighter warm 
air. In winter the outer air is the colder, and it displaces the warm- 
er air within. 



T IS an established fact that in 1671 a party sent out 
from Fort Henry — now Petersburg — penetrated to the 
Falls of New River and found on the way several letters 
cut into the bark of the trees. These markings were 
by still earlier prospectors of whom nothing else is known. But the 
journal kept by this party, and the journal written about the same 
time by John Lederer, were scarcely supplemented during the next 
half century by any further authentic information as to the country 
west of the Blue Ridge. That mountain barrier presents from the 
east a rather rugged and lofty outline. It was thought impassible. 
The country on the farther side was uninhabited by Indians and was 
believed to be very uninviting. 

During the first century after the settlement at Jamestown, the 
eight original counties grew into 25, yet they were tenanted by only a 
fifth of the half million inhabitants of the English colonies in America. 
In Virginia the area of actual settlement had not spread two-thirds of 
the way from the Atlantic coast to the Blue Ridge. 

In 1716 the governor of Virginia was Alexander Spottswood, a 
man of energy and foresight. He believed in making good the claim of 
the British to the region beyond the mountains. Geographical knowl- 
edge concerning the interior of the American continent was very fog- 
gy, and the governor believed the Blue Ridge to lie much nearer the 
Great Lakes than is really the case. He wished to find a way to 
those lakes, so that forts might be established on them, these forts 
to be linked with the coast settlements by a line of fortified stations. 
He thus thought the French on the St. Lawrence might be checkmated 
in their ambition to occupy the region south of the lakes. 

So the governor headed a party of exploration. The start was 
from Williamsburg, then the capital of Virginia. Above Fredericks- 
burg there was no road. The Blue Ridge was crossed through or 
near Swift Run Gap, and near where Flkton now stands the South 
Fork of the Shenandoah was reached. It was named the Euphrates 
and was thought to flow into the Great Lakes. On the west bank 


Spottswood and his gay companions uncorked the large variety of 
liquors they had brought along and indulged in a grand spree. Prob- 
ably not enough firewater remained for a second big drunk, and the 
"gentlemen" of the party seem to have been in no mood for farther 
adventure. But the rangers who had guided Spottswood were left 
behind to continue the exploration. 

The governor did not half accomplish his declared purpose, and 
yet his trip w r as of much significance. The lowlands of the Valley 
of Virginia were found to be a grassy prairie with a soil more fertile 
than that of the tidewater region. No Indians were living here and 
the country was stocked with game. The land beyond the Blue Ridge 
was now officially discovered, and the news was published on both sides 
of the Atlantic. Exploration in detail now went forward with some 

Yet the new region would not have been occupied very soon, — in 
fact, not for a long while,- — had it waited on the advance of settle- 
ment from Tidewater Virginia. That district was a land of tobacco 
plantations. Nearly every estate was within easy reach of some river 
always navigable by seagoing vessels. The planter had no wish to 
make a new home 150 miles beyond the heads of navigation. The im- 
migration from Britain was no longer large, and the district east of 
the Blue Ridge was by no means fully occupied. 

About 1725 there set in a new and very large stream of American 
immigration. It came from the north of Ireland and the valley of 
the upper Rhine. Nearly all these people landed at Philadelphia, be- 
cause the Pennsylvania government had in Europe the reputation of 
being more liberal than in the case of the other colonies. But the 
Germans were scarcely represented at all among the earlier settlers of 

A little more than a century before Spottswood's trip the prov- 
ince of Ulster in the north of Ireland had been conquered and almost 
depopulated. The British government confiscated several million 
acres of its lands and colonized them with people from the southwest 
of Scotland and the north of England. Among them were many of the 
Highland Scotch and a few Huguenots from France. The settlers 
were plain, hardv, and industrious, and they soon redeemed Ulster 
from its sorry appearance at the close of the conquest. Yet with 
the exception of a few breathing spells, there was a nagging persecu- 


tion of the Ulster people. This persecution was partly religious and 
partly industrial, and did not cease until 1782. The spirit of that age 
was very intolerant. It had not yet outgrown the opinion that a state 
should permit no difference in church organization within its confines. 
The immigrants were Presbyterians, while the native Irish were Cath- 
olics. England placed under civil disabilities those who did not ad- 
here to the Church of England. The Presbyterian ministers were not 
permitted to perform the marriage ceremony, and at times their con- 
gregations could not meet in public. The industrial persecution was 
because of the thrift and industry of the Ulster people. Vexatious re- 
strictions were thrown upon their manufactures with a view to strang- 
ling the competition from them. 

To get away from this harsh and illiberal treatment the people of 
Ulster began flocking to America. Here they were called Irish. The 
term Scotch-Irish is of recent coinage and is inexact. They were a 
blend of Scotch, English, Celtic Irish, and French Hugenots, the first 
element being the largest. In the settled southeast corner of Penn- 
sylvania there was little room or welcome for the strangers. They 
were therefore constrained to press inland, and in doing so they 
pushed westward the colonial frontier. Within fifty years 
the Ulster people and the colonial Americans who joined them had 
occupied a broad belt of mountain and piedmont country extending 
from New York to Georgia. They made good pioneers, because they 
were a resolute folk, accustomed to a simple life. They took kindly 
to the mountains for the reason that they came from a country of hills. 
They were overcomers by nature, and in Appalachian America they 
proceeded to subdue the forest, the beasts of prey, the Indians, the 
French, and the British. 

The Blue Ridge is nearer the seaboard in Pennsylvania than in 
Virginia. The broad Cumberland Valley is but a continuation of the 
Valley of Virginia. Nature, aided by Indian paths, had thus provided 
an easy line of travel to the South. Many of the immigrants poured 
into the hitherto uninhabited district made known by Spottswood. 
They reached Virginia by a side entrance, and without coming into 
close touch with the people of Tidewater, who were almost wholly of 
English origin. 

Between the two sections of Virginia sundered by the natural 
boundary of the Blue Ridge, there has remained since the dawn of set- 


tlement a very perceptible difference. Their populations are of di- 
verse origin, and consequently their manners and customs have never 
been the same. Nevertheless, the laws and institutions of the colony 
began at once to exert a unifying influence. 

We are now brought to the threshold of the settlement of Bath. 
Eleven years after Spottswood's revel on the bank of South River, we 
find a petition to the governor and council that speaks of the Cow- 
pasture bv its present name. The signers were Beveriv Robinson, 
Robert Brooke, William Lynn, and Robert and William Lewis. 
These men were not themselves explorers, but were influential planters 
of Tidewater. The two Lewises were not of the family that became 
so conspicuous in the annals of Augusta and her daughter counties. 
John, the father of the Lewises of Augusta, had not yet come from 
Ireland. But William Lynn was his brother-in-law. The paper is 
dated in 1727 and reads as follows: 

"Your Petitioners have been at great Trouble and Charges in making 
Discoveries of Lands among the Mountains, and are desirous of taking up 
some of these Lands they have discovered; whereupon your petitioners hum- 
bly pray your Honours to grant him an order to take up Fifty Thousand 
Acres in one or more tracts of the head branches of James River to the 
West and Northwestward of the Cow Pasture, on seating thereon one fam- 
ily for every Thousand Acres, and as the said Lands are very remote and 
lying among the great North Mountains, being about Two Hundred Miles 
at least from any landing — Your Petitioners humbly pray Your Honours 
will grant them six years time to seat the same." 

The above petition does not seem to have been acted upon. But 
an attempt to colonize the valleys of Bath even before there was a 
settler at Staunton or within 30 miles of it looks rather curious. How- 
ever, it must be remembered that the Ulstermen were not used to the 
sight of wild land uncovered with wood. The prairies of the Shen- 
andoah were not so inviting to them as we might suppose. A tract of 
good soil might not have a spring because of the limestone formation. 
Some of the best lands of the Valley are not among the first that were 
reduced to private ownership. 

How the Calfpasture, Cowpasture, and Bullpasture rivers came 
to acquire such unusual names is not clearly known. The legend that 
some early hunters killed a buffalo calf on the first stream, a cow on 
the second, and a bull on the third is too much of the nature of stor- 
ies that are told to children, and has the earmark of being an after- 


thought. There is good evidence that in all these valleys there was 
much open land. This was covered with grass and attracted the buf- 
falo, an animal that does not live in the woods. These natural pas- 
tures had been created by the Indians, and were perpetuated by burn- 
ing the grass at the close of each hunting season. Thus the valleys 
watered by the three streams came to be known as "the Pastures." 
The names the rivers now bear were first applied to the valleys and 
not to the streams. The colonial deeds relating to the most eastern 
of the pastures speak uniformly of "the Great River of the Calf Pas- 
ture" and "the Little River of the Calf Pasture." The Cowpasture 
river in 1743 was better known as Clover Creek, and until 1760 the 
Bullpasture was generally called Newfoundland Creek. For some 
years the valley of the Bullpasture was more generally called the "New 
Found Land," probably because it is so walled in by mountains that 
it may not have been found for several years after the main Cowpas- 
ture was explored. 

The red men called the Cowpasture the Walatoola (Wah-lah- 
too-lah). This musical name was corrupted by the white people into 
Wallawhatoola, which now survives only as the designation of an 
alum spring above Nimrod Hall. It has been supposed to mean "the 
river that bends," or "winding river," and such a meaning is indeed 
very appropriate to so crooked a river as the Cowpasture. But the 
real meaning is "fine white cedar." The only other stream in this re- 
gion, of which the Indian name does not seem to be totally lost, is 
Dunlap Creek. The natives called it the Escataba, meaning "wild 
rushing water." 

Speaking of the Indian place-names, the authors of the "Heart of 
the Alleghanies" makes this very just observation: "There is a mean- 
ing in their euphony, and a suggestiveness in their melody. It is a 
grievous fault, the more grievous because irreparable, that so many of 
the bold streams which thunder down forest slopes and through echo- 
ing canyons have lost those designations whose syllables glide from the 
tongue in harmony with the music of the crystal currents." 

In the summer of 1732 John Lewis settled a mile north from where 
Staunton soon arose. He was a person of means and leadership and 
was accompanied by about 30 of his Ulster followers. A more prom- 
inent comer was James Patton, who was unwearied in soliciting im- 
migration to the Augusta colony. By the end of a dozen years there 


were several hundred Ulster families scattered over the present coun- 
ties of Augusta, Rockingham, and Rockbridge, and even into the Val- 
ley counties lying nearer the Tennessee line. 

The first county to include any portion of the Valley of Virginia 
was Spottsylvania, organized in 1720. It took in only that small 
strip lying wholly east of South River and between lines meeting it a 
little below Port Republic and a little above Front Royal. In 1734, 
Orange was carved out of Spottsylvania. It was defined, however, 
as covering the entire region west of the Blue Ridge, so far as it lay 
within the boundaries claimed by Virginia. So when John Lewis ap- 
peared in the vicinty of Staunton, he had come to a "no man's land." 

In 1738 that portion of Orange west of the Blue Ridge was divid- 
ed into the counties of Frederick and Augusta by a line running from 
where is now the northwest corner of Greene County, to the Fairfax 
Stone at the southern extremity of the western line of Maryland. But 
until there should be more settlers west of the mountains, the two new 
counties were left under the jurisdiction of Orange. It was not until 
December, 1745, that Augusta was organized. It is for this reason 
that the early records of Orange have something to do with the district 
west of Shenandoah Mountain. When it was set off, Augusta con- 
tained about 4000 people, but they were scattered over a wide area. 

Lewis and his companions were regarded as squatters on the pub- 
lic domain. To make them feel the authority of the state, two im- 
mense tracts of choice land were given to William Beverly and Ben- 
jamin Borden. The grant of 118,491 acres to Beverly lay around 
Staunton. It was known as Beverly Manor and also as Irish Tract. 

Lewis was of middle age when he came to Virginia. His sons, 
Thomas, Andrew, and William were then minors but became more 
prominent than himself. Thomas was the first county surveyor of 
Augusta. Andrew assisted in surveying and both brothers were very 
energetic as land prospectors. 

Under the date of October 29, 1743, an order of council for 30,- 
000 acres was issued in favor of James and Henry Robinson, James 
Wood, and Thomas and Andrew Lewis. The grant was located in 
the basin of the James River above the mouth of the Cowpasture. 
Thomas and Andrew Lewis, now 25 and 23 years old, seem to have 
been the only active members of the syndicate, although Wood, of 
Frederick County, was also a surveyor. The Robinsons were aristo- 


crats of Tidewater and their names were enough to give prestige to 
the enterprise. 

If, as is probable, no settlers had appeared in the Bath area before 
1743, this will explain why the surveying did not begin in earnest un- 
til nearly two years had elapsed. September 26, 1745*, the Lewises ap- 
peared on the Cowpasture, just above Nimrod Hall, and surveyed 1080 
acres for Adam Dickenson. This tract was the most northern in a 
chain of four. During the next two days the others were run off for 
Alexander Millroy, John Donally, and Hugh Coffey. The fourth 
day was Sunday, and after the manner of good Presbyterians the sur- 
veyors reported no work. During the first half of the following week 
they were moving northward, adding seven more links to the chain. 
These surveys were in favor of James Waddell, Ralph Laverty, James 
Stuart, James McCay, John Mitchell, John Cartmill, and James 
Hughart. Those of Stuart, McCay, and Mitchell were on Stuart's 

The last day in March, 1746, the date falling on Monday, the sur- 
veyors returned to the Cowpasture, and below Coffey they laid off 
parcels for Joseph Watson, Andrew Muldrock, and William Daugh- 
erty. On the first of "Aprile," they continued down the river to 
the vicinity of Griffith Knob, surveying for John Walker, James 
Mayse, and Robert Crockett. Meanwhile a detachment of the sur- 
veying party w T as at work far above, laying off selections for James 
Scott, John McCreery, William Gillespie, William Lewis, James 
Jackson, James Simpson, William Black, Robert Abercrombie, Thomas 
Gillespie, Thomas Fitzpatrick, Hugh Edwards, William Warwick, 
and James Hall. The surveys already mentioned took in nearly all the 
choice morsels of Cowpasture bottom that lie within the present lim- 
its of Bath and also the more desirable land on Stuart's Creek. 

During the last week in April the surveyors were busy on Jackson's 
River. Their largest tract was for William Jackson. Immediately 

•According to the Old Style Calendar, which was 11 days behind the true 
time. The correct date is therefore October 7. The New Style calendar, 
was put into force in 1752. To correct the error, 11 days were taken out of 
ihe September of that year. Until then, the English began the new year 
with March 25. For example, all dates in 1746 coming prior to March 25 
were counted as belonging to 1745, but were often written as in this illustra- 
tion: March 1, 1745-6. 


below was a second large tract for Adam Dickenson, who took a 
third a little lower down. The lands of James Ewing, William 
Jameson, and Archibald Elliott were still farther below. 

The surveying continued at intervals until October 4. Mean- 
while the Lewises did not fail to look out for Number One. The 
Fort Lewis survey of 950 acres was run off September 5 in the name 
of John Lewis. William Lewis took a tract immediately below Bull- 
pasture Gap. Thomas Lewis took two tracts on Jackson's River, at 
and just below the Highland line, and four on Back Creek. Of the 
long list of surveys four remained for a while in the hands of the 

It is not to be assumed that every given acreage, as put down in 
the suryevor's book, is very close to the actual amount. The Lewises 
understood how to survey, but their work was done too rapidly for 
precise results. The wilderness was broad and the methods they 
used were slapdash. The length of a course was sometimes paced 
off or guessed at. An open line was occasionally drawn. But it is 
significant that in nearly or quite every instance the true area is found 
to overrun the surveyor's figure, sometimes to a very considerable 
extent. The loose way in which the courses were often run appears 
in the frequency with which the phrase, "containing by estimation," 
occurs in the deeds based on these surveys. 

In the surveys not held until a purchaser should appear, the sur- 
veyor entered this clause in his report: "Now in possession of 

." This does not necessarily imply that the 

person named was already living on his land. Millroy, Coffey, and 
Daugherty are indeed mentioned as having houses on their selections. 
The same was doubtless true of several other settlers. But in some 
instances the expression means no more than that purchase had been 
made. Several claimants lived on the Beverly or Borden grants, 
and not here. Sometimes an actual settler would take a second and 
perhaps a third tract, possibly at a considerable distance from his 

On Jackson's River, and within the Bath area*, it is doubtful 

*By "Bath area," we mean Bath County within its present lines, just as 
if these limits had always existed. By "Greater Bath," whenever the term is 
used in this book, we mean Bath as it stood from 1790 to 1822. 


whether there was any settler as early as 1746, unless it were William 

How long had the settlers been on their lands? Dickenson, the 
foremost man in the Cowpasture settlement, calls himself a resident of 
Maryland in 1742. As to the other settlers, there is no evidence that 
any of them came sooner than 1744. Carpenter, Mayse, and Wright 
did not appear until 1746. Had the settlements generally been prior to 
1745, the surveyors would have come sooner than they did. In his list 
of surveys in Augusta between the dates, January 29 and June 15, 
1745, Thomas Lewis mentions none west of Shenandoah Mountain. 
Again, if there had been settlers here for some length of time, the 
court records should disclose some indication of the fact. The first 
constable for the Cowpasture was James Mayse, appointed in Febru- 
ary, 1745. And as the head tax was closely looked after, the pioneers 
could not have escaped the attention of the county court. The first 
recognition by that body of tithables beyond Shenandoah Mountain 
occurs May 23, 1745. The justices of Orange, in describing precincts 
to the various tithe-takers, then instruct John Lewis to list "all the 
Inhabitants of the Cow and Calf Pastures and the Settlers back of 
the same." The expression, "back of the same," is not quite conclu- 
sive that any man had as yet located beyond Warm Springs Mountain. 
It seems worded to cover a possible and perhaps probable contingency. 
Once again, the muster rolls of the militia for 1742 do not include the 
names that were soon to appear in the region covered by the Lewis 

The county surveyor did not come again for four years. In 1750 
and 1751 he surveyed 37 tracts, which, however, aggregate not quite 
2000 acres. Those of above 100 acres number only four. Several 
are of 10 to 20 acres only. Twelve were taken by men already here. 
Some others were seemingly taken by junior members of the pioneer 
families. During the next four years, which interval brings us to the 
outbreak of the Indian war, there are only five new surveys which seem 
to belong to the Bath area. 

This abrupt falling off in the amount of land surveyed between 
1740 and 1755 tells a very plain story. All the more desirable lands 
had now been taken; the early settlers, who seldom chose tracts of 
less than 200 acres, were a substantial class of men and the little sur- 
veys of 1750-51, so far as associated with the names of later comers, 
generally indicate men of less stability and more limited means. 


We close this chapter with a tradition bearng on the early settle- 
ment of Bath. The story was put into print quite a while ago, and 
was related by a man whose personal recollection must have begun 
nearly a century since. It runs as follows : 

Peter Francisco settled near the eastern foot of the Blue Ridge. 
With the help of the men who located around him, he blazed a path 
to the summit of the mountain wall. John Lewis, Robert Clark, 
and James Mayse joined him in the decision to explore the country 
lying westward, and late in a September the four men set out afoot. 
Once on the mountan top they were struck with the broad expanse 
of desirable country in full view. They went forward a consider- 
able distance, and on their return they marked out a trail for pack- 

In the spring they set forth again, this time with horses, and 
reached the Cowpasture at Fort Lewis. Selecting a hollow lying 
against a high cliff, they built a hut of three rooms and fenced it in 
with a barracade of felled trees. They planted corn, potatoes, and 
turnips, and in the fall stored away their little crop, burying the veg- 
etables under the floor of the hut. Then they returned, no Indians 
having been seen. 

The second spring there were about 20 men to go to the Cowpasture 
several being accompanied by their families. The hut was undisturb- 
ed, except that squirrels had eaten much of the corn and the foxes 
had looked out for the venison and bear meat. More land was clear- 
ed and individual huts were to be built in the fall. After the grow- 
ing corn was "laid by," several of the men went back for additional 
supplies. There were left behind four women, a man lamed by an 
axe-cut in his foot, and a boy named Joseph Mayse. 

The third morning afterward, a party of Indians captured the 
four women and the small store of eatables and fired the hut. The boy 
who was hoeing corn barefoot, was also taken. The man had hob- 
bled some distance up the river and was fishing. Hearing the yells 
and seeing the smoke, he crawled up a bluff to get a better view. Some 
Indians with the boy and two of the women passed below without 
seeing him. He supposed the other women killed, but feared to fire, 
since it might lead to the death of the captives. The company passed 
on, and he was about to descend the bluff, when the other women 
came in sight, urged along by a switch in the hand of a solitary Indian. 


Their condition made it impossible for them to travel as fast as the 
others. Enraged by the spectacle, the lame man shot the driver dead, 
but the report of his gun did not cause the other Indians to return. 

The red men and their prisoners camped that night in a cave a 
mile above Bath Alum. When they had reached Beaver Run on 
Gauley they were overtaken by the men of the settlement, who, upon 
seeing the smoke from a mountain summit, at once turned back in 
pursuit. The Indians, though taken by surprise, made their escape, 
but the captives tried to follow, thinking the assailants were other In- 
dians. They had reached and swum the Gauley, before the rescuers 
could overtake them and tell them to go back to camp and live on the 
venison that was there. The men resumed the pursuit. The women and 
the boy missed the trail in the darkness and followed a deerpath, 
which took them to a river that ran the wrong way to be the Gauley. 
This stream was broad and shoal and they easily got across. On the 
farther side they saw many buffalos and other grazing animals, some 
of them drinking from a spring. The fugitives were hungry and 
tired. The boy picked up a knife that had been dropped by an Indian 
and killed a buffalo calf, although for a while its cries maddened the 
herd and compelled the boy and women to keep out of its way. After 
the animals dispersed he cut out a ham. While searching for the 
women he fell into the spring, and its salty water made his feet smart. 

In two days they reached the source of the river, which was the 
Elk. From the mountain they were now on, they thought they could 
recognize the ridge east of the Greenbrier. Their meat had become 
tainted, but the resourceful boy caught fish in the Elk, using a string 
of hickory bark as a fishing line. When they reached the Greenbrier 
they recognized the point where they had crossed. The waters were too 
deep for wading, their firsh were spoiled, and they could get no more 
in the muddy river. But the men, who were mounted, presently came 
along and they had plenty of venison captured from the Indians. 
What had happened to the latter the men could not be induced to 
tell. In two more days they reached the home on the Cowpasture, 
where the lame man had saved from the fire a building of green logs 
intended for a stable. This he had made comfortable for the women, 
and in a few days the little colony was increased by two infant boys. 

This legend of the discovery of the mineral springs of Webster 
county cannot be accepted at face value. Like some other narratives 


of the old frontier, it appears to confuse names and events belonging 
to different periods of time. John Lewis never lived east of the Blue 
Ridge, and the elder Joseph Mayse did not settle on the Cowpasture 
before 1746. Peter Francisco lived in Bedford County and was a 
soldier of the Revolution. He was a giant in size and strength and 
wielded a broad-sword five feet long? With this terrible weapon he 
cut down eleven British soldiers in the battle of Guilford. The 
younger Joseph Mayse was not taken by the Indians until nearly 20 
years after the settlement of the Cowpasture. His experience, as told 
by himself, has little agreement with this narrative. And if the four 
captives could swim the Gauley, why could they not swim the Green- 

The only chronological place for the story is in the year 1743, at 
which time the Augusta people had some trouble with the red men, 
though it was not of very serious nature. It is probable that the 
legend includes some facts, otherwise lost sight of, which concern the 
original settlement around Fort Lewis. That settlement may have 
Legun in 1743, in which case the legend would be partially correct. 



N COLONIAL times an immigrant to Virginia who was 
of age and could prove he had paid the cost of his pas- 
sage from Europe could claim a "headright," which en- 
titled him to 50 acres of the public domain. He could al- 
so take up 50 acres for each adult male member of his household. The 
man availing himself of the headright privilege was required to settle 
on the land, to improve at least six per cent of the acreage, and to pay 
each year a quitrent of one shilling (17 cents) for each 5 acres. The 
tendency of this system was to fill Virginia with a good class of citi- 
zens. The principle on which it is based is the same as in the case of 
the present homestead law of the national government. Fifty acres 
was also the amount of public land which might be taken up by the 
private soldier of the Indian wars, by virtue of a proclamation of the 
royal governor of 1763. In Bath the headright was not permitted to 
cut any figure. As for the corn right and tomahawk right, which are 
one and the same thing, they did not acquire a recognized status until 
1766, and consequently have no actual bearing on the settlement of 
this county. 

Another system was the order of council. The governor, with the 
concurrence of his council, a body of men corresponding to the present 
state senate, would grant a huge block of land to an individual, or to a 
group of men acting as a company. In theory the purpose of the order 
of council was to settle a minimum number of families on the grant 
within a stated time. The grantee was supposed to be prohibited from 
charging more than a specified price per acre. He issued deeds, just as 
though the grant was owned by himself in fee simple. In modern 
usage the order of council would be defined as a method of coloniza- 
tion. But in practice there was created a non-resident proprietorship, 
enabling influential men in favor with the powers-that-were to levy 
for their personal benefit a plump tax on a body of settlers, and with- 
out rendering a corresponding benefit in return. Such a way of doinq: 
things was a graft. It discriminated against the small landseeker. It 
cornered the desirable land in a region where the proportion of rough 


land is very large. Unless the settler was able to pay a comparatively 
high price for such choice land, he had to go on to the very verge of 
settlement. Many persons did so and in this way a thin fringe of set- 
tlement was pushed forward too rapidly for comfort or safety. Fur- 
thermore, the colonial government is said to have been very lenient 
toward its favorites in the matter of enforcing forfeiture where there 
was a failure to comply with the settlement condition. Sometimes the 
grantee did not charge the full minimum price per acre. At other 
times he exacted more than was his due. 

The headright method was equitable. It assumed that the settler 
was capable of choosing land for himself. The other method was 
monopolistic. It assumed that the immigrant was too much like a 
child to select for himself, and that it was fair and proper to allow 
some self-constituted agency to charge him a high price for a compara- 
tively small service. 

The following paragraph, taken from a petition presented to the 
Legislature by Botetourt citizens in 1779, doubtless voiced a very prev- 
alent feeling: 

A few artful monopolizers, possessed of immense sums of money, which 
they have accumulated by taking advantage of the necessities of individuals, 
have it in their power to engross the greatest part of the public lands on this 
side of the Ohio, whilst the brave soldier is limited to a small portion and 
the virtuous citizen is implicitly debarred from getting any at all. 

As we have already seen, a syndicate which included Thomas and 
Andrew Lewis was given in 1743 an order of council for 30,000 acres. 
We recognize as portions of this grant 91 separate tracts, covering 
about 27,000 acres, and surveyed in 1745-6. The Lewis brothers were 
good judges of land and they scarcely overlooked any section of river- 
bottom that was of first desirability. Neither did they fail to take no- 
tice of the limestone uplands of Warm Springs. These they seem to 
have covered by entries, probably as early as 1743. The surveys based 
upon such entries are of considerably later date than the 91 we are 
about to consider. 

These original surveys average about 300 acres. Several of the 
more choice tracts were reserved by the Lewises for personal owner- 
ship or for speculation. Of the others all but seven had been taken by 
individual landseekers before the surveyors came around. The further 
progress of private ownership in this basin of the upper James may be 


read in the lists of patents for the remaining fragments of river-bottom 
and the more desirable tracts of upland. Much of this later patenting 
went to the enlargement of the original estates. These later surveys 
may be classed as culls. Many of them were not made into new farms 
and their history is of far less interest than that of the primary sur- 

We therefore append to this chapter a list and description of these 
primary surveys. Where we find conveyances of title during the first 
50 years of settlement, we include in the record all but the least im- 
portant of these transactions. Yet here and there an item is missing 
which we have not been able to find. In a few other instances there is 
an element of uncertainty. Now and then an entry seems not to have 
found its way into the record books. 

The holdings under the Lewis grant constituted the key to the ear- 
ly history of the upper basin of the James. The lands esteemed choice 
by the settlers cover only one-twentieth of this area. This fraction 
was taken up by men of enterprise and resource; men capable of car- 
rying on a plantation rather than a common farm. Now and then a 
settler dropped out of the race, usually because of Indian raids or fi- 
nancial embarrassment. Other men, feeling cramped by the narrow 
valleys, or impelled by sheer restlessness, moved at length to the Caro- 
lina uplands or into the smooth country of the Mississippi Valley. If 
the pioneer did not himself migrate, his son or his grandson was quite 
certain to do so. If his surname has not utterly disappeared during 
the seventeen decades of settlement, the outflow has in most instances 
been of such volume as to leave behind only a small representation of 
his posterity. 

Since Greater Bath covered nearly all the upper valley of the 
James, we have thought it best to include the Lewis surveys in High- 
land and Alleghany. 

Beginning with the most eastern of the sources of the Bullpasture, 
that valley, as far down as the Lockridge neighborhood, was parcelled 
off into the surveys claimed by Elliot, De la Montony, syndicate (224 
acres), Armstrong (112), Carlile (204), McCreery (208), Holman, 
Largent, syndicate (175), Harper, Miller (250), Bodkin, Estill, 
Carlile (304), Carlile (284), and Lewis (348). 

On the Cowpasture, immediately above the mouth of the Bullpas- 
ture, Black. Just above him was Knox (254) and across the 


Cowpasture was Jackson (340). Above Knox was Hall (212), and 
beyond him were Rainey, Jackson (163), and syndicate (286), these 
four not forming an altogether connected series. For about nine 
miles below the mouth of the Bullpasture the order was as follows: 
Lewis (390), McCreery (520), Lewis (430), Lewis (950), and 
Mayse (182). Southward to the mouth of Stuart's Creek the order 
is approximately this: Cartmill, Knox (93), Moore, Clendennin 
(195), Clendennin (130). Knox and Moore were separated by the 
river. Abercrombie lay on Cromby's Run, now Thompson's Creek. 
Laverty was at the mouth of Stuart's Creek. Just above him on that 
stream was Stuart. Beyond was first McCay and then Mitchell. 
Some distance higher up were Gillespie (300), Edwards, Hall (150), 
and Fitzpatrick. Just below Laverty and nearly opposite was Wad- 
dell. Thence, until we come into the great bend of the Cowpasture 
beginning at Griffith's Knob, the succession is as follows: Dicken- 
son (1080), Millroy, Donally, Coffey, Watson, Muldrock (130), 
Duagherty, Walker, Mayse (415), Crockett (246), Scott, Simpson, 
Gillespie (320). Muldrock had a small survey near the mouth of 
the Cowpasture, and in the bend above was Gannt's. 

In the pocket of bottom on Jackson's River, beginning just above 
the Highland line, there came, successively, Miller (487), Mayse 
(234), Lewis (304), and Lewis (489). Below the defile above 
Fort Dinwiddie were the very long surveys of Jackson (1100) and 
Dickenson (870). Thence along the river to the mouth of Dunlap — 
first called Carpenter's Creek, Peter's Creek, and Meadow Creek — 
the succession is about as follows: Crockett (283), Davis, Jameson, 
Armstrong (270), Ewing, Crockett (195), Elliot (163), Wilson, 
Montgomery, and Dunlap, together with three syndicate surveys. 
On the lower portion of the site of Covington was Wright, and in the 
river-loop below was Carpenter. 

About the source of Falling Spring was a Dickenson survey. Well 
up on Dunlap was a large Lewis survey and another held by the syn- 
dicate. On Back Creek was a Lewis survey and four syndicate sur- 
veys, three of the latter lying at the mouth of Little Back Creek. 

The surveys in the Lewis grant were patented by the first occu- 
pants or by their successors. The certificates of survey were trans- 
ferable by law, and were given to the settlers in return for the pur- 
chase money of 10 cents per acre. 


It would seem as though most of the settlers were either unable 
or unwilling to pay for their lands, or that they wished to worry the 
Lewis syndicate into granting patents for a nominal consideration. 
At any rate, many suits were brought against them by Robinson 
and Lewis between 1747 and 1752. The defendants in these suits 
include an undue proportion of the leading men of the settlements. 

The suit of Mays v. Lewis, 1746, throws considerable light on 
the early settlement of Bath. Joseph Mayse states that he agreed to 
purchase of John Lewis 500 acres in one or more blocks. Lewis was 
to survey at his own cost, and give perfect title in fee simple when- 
ever so required. Mayse was to pay three pounds per 100 acres and 
paid down two pounds. A 200-acre tract was laid off on the Cow- 
pasture and Lewis promised to lay off the other 300 acres when asked 
to do so. Mayse paid the surveyor one pistole ($3.61) and decided 
to take the other 300 acres on Jackson's River, adjoining William 
Wilson. James Trimble, alias Turnbull, there ran off for him 234 
acres. In the fall Mayse built a cabin on it, paid 40 shillings, and al- 
ways stood ready to pay the residue in cash, but Lewis demanded a 
bond, which Mayse refused to give, as he expected interest would be 
required. Mayse understands that Lewis has sold the 234 acres to a 

In his reply, Lewis states that the bargaining was in June, 1746. 
Mayse lives on the Cowpasture survey. Lewis denies that Mayse 
paid him 40 shillings or any smaller sum on the same, but admits 
that Mayse let him have a tweed hat and some other trifles, which 
he understands were not to apply on the purchase. Lewis says Mayse 
never paid 40 shillings on the Jackson's River land, but on the con- 
trary owed him 43 shillings, which he could not get till he threaten- 
ed suit. Mayse had money in the hands of John Brown. The Latter 
made over to Lewis a doubloon, out of which Lewis paid to himself 
the 43 shillings and was ready to pay Mayse what was left. He con- 
fessed selling the 234 acres and being paid in cash for it. He gave 
Mayse notice to settle and either pay down or give bond for the pur- 
chase money for both tracts, the bond to bear interest from the end 
of August, 1747. Mayse flatly refused to do either and demanded 
a patent in his own name. Lewis declares he has always been ready 
ti» L r ive deed or patent for the 200-acre tract, provided Mayse took 
500 acres in all, cither paving in specie or giving his bond. In his re- 
joinder, Mayse reaffirms his previous statement. 


In McCreery v. Justice, we find this memorandum by James 
Trimble, dated August 7, 1750: "Surveyed for Wm. Warrick 224 
Acres in Newfound Land between Saml De La Matonye & Car- 
lile." Thomas Lewis says John McCreery paid him $6.54 for the sur- 
veying, which was done for Warrick. In 1749 a charge of $10.75 
was added to the foregoing. John Justice gave bond to pay Mc- 
Creery $22.50 "for my right of a piece in the bull paster," also the 
purchase money to John Lewis, and the charges for the surveying 
and the "patton." 

The name of the person for whom the tract was surveyed is mentioned 
first. Then follow, in regular succession, the acreage, the location, the 
date of patent, and finally the conveyances, if any, which ensued. When no 
name immediately follows the year of patent, it is to be understood that 
the patent was issued in the name of the person for whom the survey was 
made. Otherwise, the name of the new owner is mentioned. A star follow- 
ing the acreage — as 100* — means that the survey was in 1745. All other 
surveys were in 1746. The Virignia pound of $3.33 is represented by "p". 
Therefore, to reduce pounds to dollars, add one cipher and divide by 3. 
Other special abbreviations are these: 

CP — Cowpasture; BP — Bullpasture; JR — Jackson's River; BC — Back 
Creek; SC — Stuart's Creek; FS — Falling Spring Run; DC — Dunlap Creek; 
A — acres: P — patent; br — branch; n — 'near; opp — opposite; adj — adjoining; 
cor — cornering on ; mo — mouth of. 

Abercrombie, Robert — 425— Cromby's Run, CP— P, 1760, James Gay— 336 
A sold, 1773, to John Gay for lOOp — the same sold by Jas. and Jno. Gay to 
Henry Rockey, of Pennsylvania for 3500p (depreciated paper money). 

Armstrong, Robert— 270— JR, below Bath line— P, 1760. 

Armstrong, Robert— 112— BP, below Doe Hill— 'P, 1760, William Wil- 
son — sold, 1768, to Abraham Hempenstall for 46p. 

Black, Alexander— 250— CP at mo. BP— P, 1750—125 A sold to Alexan- 
der Black, Jr., 1765, for 40p — whole P plus later P of 34 A sold by pioneer's 
sons, 1792, to Thomas Houston for 400p — sold by Houston, 1796, to John 
Lewis for 1000 p — sold by Lewis, 1798, to Charles Cameron for lOOOp. 

Bodkin, Richard— 339— BP above Pullin— P, 1750— sold, 1762, to Samuel 
Given for 158p — 100 A sold, 1765, to James Burnside for 40p — 239 A sold 
1768, to John Hicklin for 150p. 

Carlile, Robert and John— 304 — BP below Estill— P 1765— divided equally 
1773. between Robert and John. 

Carlile, Robert and John — 204 — W side BP below Armstrong's 112 — P, 
1759— sold, 1786, by George Carlile to William Erwin for lOp. Sold, 1793, 
by William and Susanna'Erwin to James Hutchinson for 140p. 

Carlile, Robert and John— 300— P, 1759— CP, E side Indian Draft— sold 
to John Carlile, Jr., 1773 for 70p. 


Carlile, John— 281— BP below Carlile's 30-1 — P, 1750, William Wilson- 
sold 1761, by Matthew Wilson (brother and heir) to Robert Graham for 
67i/ 2 p. 

Carpenter, Joseph— 782— JR below Wright— P, 1750 — 230 A sold, 1762, to 
John Mann for 700 — 1-64 A divided equally, 1765, between Joseph and Solo- 
mon Carpenter (sons), each paying father lOp — 160 A of Solomon's share 
purchased at public sale, 1772, by William Hughart for 90p, and sold by him, 
1786, to Wallace Estill, Jr. for 260p. However, Solomon Carpenter and 
Sutney his wife sold to John Mann, 1773, 160 A for 130p. 

Cartmill, John— 300*— CP touching Indian Draft— P, 1760—245 A sold, 
1774, to Samuel Cartmill for lOOp, and by him, 1787, to Nathan Crawford. 

Clendennin, Archibald — 195 — CP n mo SC — P 1750, Thomas Thompson, 

Clendennin, Archibald — 130 — adj his other tract — P, 1750, Thomas 

Coffey, Hugh— 220*— CP below Donally— P 1750— Sold 1766, by John Cof- 
fey (son) to John Ramsey for 40p, and by him, 1794, to Samuel McDannald 
for 150p. John McDannald then a neighbor. 

Crockett, Robert— 195— JR mo Cedar Creek— P, 1760, John Dickenson— 
sold 1762, to James Fitzpatrick for 30p — sold, 1793, by Fitzpatrick to Paul 
Harpole for 225p. 

Crockett, Robert — 246 — CP below James Mayse — P, 1750, John and Arch- 
ibald (sons) — sold, 1776, to James Beard and by him to Richard Mayse, 
1794, for 385p. 

Crockett, Robert— 283— JR above mo FS— P 1750,Samuel (son)— sold, 
1762, to Alexander Hamilton for 40p — sold by Hamilton, 1765, to William 
Hamilton for lOOp — sold by latter, 1771, to Samuel Kincaid for 50p — sold by 
Kincaid, 1780, to Andrew Kincaid for 400p — 76 A sold by Andrew Kincaid, of 
Greenbrier, to John Kincaid, 1795, for 35p. 

Davis, David— 320— E side JR, mo FS— P, 1760, Robert Abercrombie— 
sold, 1761, to John Stuart for 150p — sold by Stuart, 1761, to William Mann 
for 152p — sold by Mann, 1784, to John Robinson for 60p. 

De La Montony, Samuel— 200 — CP below Elliott— P, John McCreery— 
sold, 1760 to John Bodkin for 25p— sold by Bodkin, 1762, to Robert Duffield 
for 21i^p — sold by Duffield, 1794, to William Armstrong for 300p. 

Dickenson, Adam— 1080*— CP between Waddell and Millroy — P, 1750— 
311 A sold, 1754, to Alexander Craighead for 150p, and by Craighead, 1765, 
to Andrew Sitlington for 200p. 

Dickenson, Adam— 870— JR below Jackson's 1100 A— P 1750—215 A (up- 
per end) sold, 1754, to John Byrd for 25p— 377 A (middle) sold, 1754, to 
James Bourland for 75p — 317 A (lower end) sold, 1754, to William Dean 
for 75p. Dean sold to John Dean (brother), 1765, for lOOp — Bourland sold 
175 A, 1774 to Robert McClentic for 154p. Note:— The sales by Dicken- 
son show an excess of acreage. 

Dickenson, Adam— 546— FS valley— P, 1750— sold, 1767, by John Dicken- 
son and Benjamin Estill (mortgagee) to Gabriel Jones for 250p — sold by 


Jones, 1792, together with P's of 217 and 82 A to Thomas Massie for 500p. 
At same time, Jones sold to Elisha Williams 3 other tracts in WS, 910 A, for 

Donally John— 277*— CP above Coffey— P, 1751. 

Daugherty, William— 285*— CP between Muldrock and Walker— P, 1750 
—sold by heirs, 1791, to Robert Sitlington for 330p. 

Dunlap, Arthur — 270 — JR mo Dunlap Creek — P, 1750, William Jackson — 
sold, 1772, to Richard Morris for lOOp. 

Edwards, Hugh — 174 — SC, cor Thomas Gillespie— P, 1763, Charles Lew- 
is sold, 1769, to John McCausland — sold by latter, 1791, to Andrew McCaus- 
land (son). 

Elliott, Archibald — 364 — sources of BP and Blackthorn — P, 1756, James 
Trimble — sold, 1757, to George Wilson for 55p — 200 A sold by Wilson to 
Samuel Wilson for 40p — 164 A (remainder of survey?) sold by Samuel Wil- 
son, 1773, to John McCoy for 150p. 

Elliott, Archibald— 163— JR—P (?)— sold, 1758, to John Johnson— sold, 

1759, by James Clark and William Elliott (through power of attorney from 
Archibald Elliott) to William Johnson, assignee of John Johnson, for 60p — 
sold by William Johnson, 1762, to John Bollar for 50p. 

Estill, Wallace— 344 — BP at Clover Creek mill — P, 1750—131 A sold, 
1761, to Boude Estill (son) for 40p, and by latter, 1774, to James Carlile for 
108p— 213 A sold by Wallace Estill, 1774, to John Pebbles for 200p, and sold 
by Pebbles' heirs, 1805, to David Gwin for $1500. 

Ewing, James — 254 — JR at Muddy Run — P, 1760, Archibald Armstrong — 
sold, 1793, by Armstrong to John Sumwalt for 105p. 

Fitzpatrick, Thomas — '190 — SC — P, 1761, John Stephenson — sold to John 
Gillespie, 1767, for 30p. 

Gannt, Robert— 1-0— CP— P, 1770, John Ramsay (?) 

Gillespie, William— 320— CP opp Griffith Knob— P, 1761— sold, 1780, to 
Aaron Hughes for 10,000p (depreciated money). 

Gillespie, Thomas— 300— SC—P, 1760—150 A sold, 1795, to John Edwards 
for HOp, and by him, 1779, to Jacob Rodecap for 180p. 

Hall, James— 150— SC—P, 1750— sold, 1770, to Andrew Donally, and by 
him, 1779 to Leonard Bell. Seems to have been sold, 1797, by Samuel Gilles- 
pie to John Edwards for HOp. 

Hall, James-^212— CP above Laurel Gap— P, 1750— sold to Robert Hall, 

1760, for lOp, and by him to Joseph Gwin, 1772, for lOOp. 

Harper, Matthew— 220— BP above Miller— P, 1758— sold, 1764, to Hugh 
Martin for 80p — sold by Martin to John Miller, of Rockingham, — sold by 
Miller, 1789, to Charles Callahan. 

Holman, William — 265 — BP above Largent— P (?) — probably acquired by 
Edward Hynes, who died about 1778. 

Hughart, James— 590— E side CP adj Cartmill and Indian Draft— P. 1750 
— sold, 1772, by Thomas Hughart (son) to James Hughart, Jr., (son) — 112 A 
sold by Thomas and James, 1784, to Nathan Crawford for 40p — 110 A sold 
by James Hughart, Jr., 1793 to John Hughart (son) for 5p. 


Jackson, William — 1100 — JR at Fort Dinwiddie — P, 1750 — Repatented, 
1784, by Robert Hall, who in 17S0 purchased for 5 shillings 320 A of John 
Oliver— 100 A sold by Hall (1783?) to William Allen— 1000 A sold, 1788, to 
Jacob Warrick for 1500p— 261^4 A sold, 1795, by Warrick to Charles Cam- 

Jackson, James— 340— CP opp mo BP— P, 1750, John Jackson— 170 A sold 
1765, by William Jackson to Francis Jackson for 30p, and by latter, 1769, 
to William Renick for 42p — sold by Renick, 1776, to George Benson for 65p — 
the other 170 sold, by William Jackson, Jr., to Robert Hall for 600p. 

Jackson, James— 168— CP—P, 1759, William Sprowl— sold to William 
Steuart, 1761, for 30p. 

Jameson, William — 280 — E side JR cor Ewing — P, 1760, John Jameson 
(son) — sold, 1765, to Archibald Armstrong, Sr., for 50p, and by the latter, 
1767, to Robert Armstrong, Sr., for lOOp — 145 A sold, 1780, to Benjamin Tall- 
man — James Kirk, a neighbor, 1780. But in 1795, Robert Armstrong, Sr., sold 
196 to James Sttele for 200p. 

Knox, James— 25-1 — CP above Black— P, 1760—100 A sold, 1765, to Robert 
Knox for 20 p, and by latter, 1776, to Thomas Nickell — 160 A sold, 1769, to 
Patrick Miller for 70p. 

Knox, James — 93 — CP adj John Moore— P, 1760 — sold, 1761, to Edward 
Thompson for 31^p, and by him, 1763, to Joseph McClung for 30p. 

Largent, James — '212 — BP below Holman and on a small br — P (?) — 
sold, 1762, by William Johnson to Thomas Hamilton for 16^p, and by Ham- 
ilton, 1773, to Joseph Beathe. 

Laverty, Ralph— 300— CP mo SC— P, 1750— conveyed to Mrs. Rebecca 
Hamilton (daughter), 1786. 

Lewis, John— 950— CP at Fort Lewis^P, 1750, Charles Lewis. 

Lewis, John— 304 — JR at "great lick" (Bolar Run)— P, 1760, William 

Lewis, Andrew — 348— BP below Carlile's 281 A— P. 1750— sold, 1756, 
to Thomas Hicklin for 60p — 217 sold by latter, 1761, to John Hicklin (son) 
for 50p, and by Samuel Given, of Botetourt, 1776, to Andrew Lockridge for 
270p— 131 A sold, 1770, by Thomas Hicklin to Thomas Hicklin, Jr., (son) 
and sold, 1793, by James Lockridge to Alexander Wiley for 230p — this sold 
by Wiley to John Steuart 1797. 

Lewis, William— 390— CP and BP below Black— P, 1750— sold, 1752, to 
Thomas Feamster for 37^p — 100 A sold, 1764, by Feamster to John Mont- 
gomery for 48p, and by latter, 1792, to Alexander Taylor for ISOp. 

Lewis, Thomas — 304, 210, and 150 — mo of little BC — P as one tract, 1759, 
by Robert Abercrombie — sold, 1760, to Robert Gay — 364 A sold, 1765, by 
(iay to Samuel Vance and William Hutchinson for 60p — 183 A sold, 1766, to 
Samuel Vance for 50p — 133 A sold, 1766, to John Vance for 50p. 

Lewis, Thomas — 489 — JR below Bolar Run — P, 1764, Robert Bratton and 
Ralph Laverty — sold. 1769, by Bratton and Laverty, 244^ A to William 
Given for 70p and 244^ to Adam Bratton, 1770, for 150p — Given sold, 1792, 
98*/£ A to Robert Given for lOp. But in 1753, Thomas patented his sur- 
vey here of 489 acres and sold it the same year to James Gay for 115p. 


Lewis, Thomas— 560— BC—P, 1761— sold, 1761 to James and Robert 
Allen for 80p — 280 A sold by the Aliens, 1763, to John Young for 45p — sold 
by Young, 1766, to John Davis for 67p, and by latter to James Gregory, 1768 
f or 75 p — 280 A sold by Robert Allen, 1763, to John Davis for lOOp, and 85 A 
sold by Davis, 1768, to David Tate for 17p, and by latter to John Sprowl, 
1770, for 20p. 

Lewis, Thomas— 95— BC—P (?) 

Lewis, George^30— CP below McCreerys 520 A— P, 1752 — 215 sold, 
1755, to John Lewis (son) for 120p, and by him to Charles Lewis, 1772, for 
lOOp — 215 sold, 1775, to Benjamin Lewis (son) for 90p, and by him to David 
Frame, 1772, for 150p. 

Mayse, James — +15— CP below Walker— P, 1760, William Mayse (son). 

Mayse, Joseph— 182— CP below Lewis' 950 A— P, 1761. 

Mayse, Joseph— 234 — JR below Miller— P, 1760, Stephen Wilson— sold, 
1797, to David Gwin for 1600p. 

McCay, James— 290 — SC above Stuart— P, 1759— sold, 1784, by Jane Mc- 
Cay of Greenbrier (widow) to Andrew and Charles Donally — sold, 1795 by- 
Charles Donally to Benedict Ailshe for 300p— 150 sold by Aishe, 1798, to 
James Graham. 

McCreery, John— 520— CP below Lewis' 390 A— P, 1751—260 A sold, 
1765, to Robert McCreery (son) for 120p, and by him* 1790, plus 30 A to 
Thomas Wallace for 500p— 260 A plus later P of 16 A sold, 1787, by John 
McCreery Jr (son) to John Bourland for 500p. 

McCreery, John— 280— BP below Carlile's 204 A— P, 1760, 1773, sold, 
1763, to Richard Bodkin for 45p — sold (with mill) by Bodkin to Joseph Mal- 
com for 50p. 

Miller, John— 487— JR above Mayse's 234 A— P, 1760 — 243 A sold, 1770, 
to David Gwin for lOOp— 244 A sold, 1767, by Robert Miller, of Albemarle, 
to George Skillern for 250p. 

Miller, James — 250 — BP above Bodkins' — P, 1760, James Burnside — sold 
plus 100 A of Bodkin land, to John Hicklin, 1786, for 300p— 196 A sold, 1789, 
by Andrew Lockridge to James Lockridge. 

Millroy, Alexander— 200*— CP below Dickenson's 1080 A— P, 1751— sold 
1762, to William Sprowl for 200p, and by Sprowl, 1772, to Hugh Hicklin for 
132p— 178 A sold by Hicklin, 1794, to George Whiteman for 250p and 22 A 
1794, to John Dickenson. 

Mitchell, John— 234* — SC above McCay— P, 1759— sold to George Wil- 
son for 80p — sold by Wilson, 1768, to Charles Donally for 90p, and by lat- 
ter, 1791, to James Graham for 250p. 

Montgomery, James — 220 — JR above Wright — P, 1750, Charles Walker. 

Moore, John— 220*— CP below Mayse's 182— P, 1759. 

Muldrock, Andrew — 130 — CP between Watson and Daugherty — P, 1761 
— sold by Hugh Muldrock, 1781, to Casper Faught for 140p and by him, 
1785, to Robert Sitlington for 80p. 

Muldrock, Andrew— 40— mo of CP— P, 1761. 


Pullen, Loftus— 321— BP between Estill and Bodkin— P, 1758. 

Raney, Michael— 216— CP adj Hall's 212 A— P, 1760, Charles Gilham— 
sold, 1763, to James Bodkin for 41p, and by him to Robert Carlile, 1767, 
for 50p. 

Scott, James — 190— CP below Crockett's 246 A— P, 1751— sold, 1781, to 
Joseph Surber for 400p. 

Simpson, James — 300* — CP below Scott — P, 1761 — sold to James Handley 
1762 — 58 A sold, 1772, to John Henry Insminger for 55p. 

Stuart, James— 300— SC Laverty— P, 1750— sold, 1800, by Robert Stuart to 
Richard Mathews and by him, 1802, to Joseph Kincaid. 

Syndicate — 875 — DC — P, 1750, Adam Dickenson. 

Syndicate — 490— DC— P, 1760, John Dickenson— sold, 1766, to William 
Hughart for SOp, and by him, 1768, to Andrew and Thomas Lewis for 120p 
— sold 1768 by Andrew Lewis to James Blair. 

Syndicate— 286— CP above Knox's 254 A— P, 1760, John Miller— sold, 
to John Kincaid for SOp. 

Syndicate — 175 — BP between Largent and Harper — P, 1750, John Brown 
— sold to Hance Harper, 1753, for 20p, and by him, 1768, to Samuel Black — 
63 A sold, 1787, by John Black (son) to James Curry for 10p. 

Syndicate— 224 — BP below De La Montony— P, 1750, John McCreery— 
sold 1753, to John Justice for 13J4p, and by him, 1754, to Michael Harper 
for 30p — sold by Harper, 1760, to William Shannon for 35p, and by him, 
1765, to Robert Scott for 29p — 'sold by Scott, 1768, to James Burnside for 42p, 
and by him, 1772, to William McCandless for 42p — sold by McCandless, 1775, 
to Robert Hestent, of Dunmore, (Shenandoah) county for 170p, and by him, 
1779, to Paul Summers for 700p (depreciated money). This place was by 
this time known as the Burdie house. 

Syndicate— 196 (169?)— JR mo Cedar Creek— P (?) 

Syndicate— 94— JR-^P, 1771, William Lewis 

Waddell, James — 224* — CP between Laverty and Dickenson's 1890 A — P, 
1750, Ralph Laverty — sold, 1770, to William Laverty (son) for 25p, and by 
him, 1774 to John Sitlington for \\2 1 /^ — deeded by Sitlington, 1790, to James 
Kelso (son-in-law). 

Walker, John— 340— CP below Daugherty— P, 1759, John and Archibald 

Warrick, William— '216— br of CP— P, 1759, Henry Gay— 98 A sold by 
Martha Gay (widow), 1780, to Andrew Moody for lOOOp (depreciated 

Watson, Joseph— 200 CP between Coffey and Muldrock— P, 1760, by heirs 
who sold, 1769, to James Scott for 22^p. 

Wilson, George — 175— JR n Cedar Creek— P, 1759 (?) James Callison— 
sold, 1760, to James Bourland for 30p, and by him to Rowland Madison — 
sold by Madison, 1787, to James Elliot for lOOp and by James Elliot, 1791, 
to Moses Mann for 250p. Note: — George Wilson, 1758, patented on the CP 
or Shaw's Fork an unlisted survey of 316 A. From this he appears to have 
sold in 1759 105 A to William Steuart for 20p, and 100 A to James Shaw for 


lOp. In 1762 he sold James Clements 100 A for $15.46. Shaw sold to 
James Bodkin, 1766, for 25p, and he to James Steuart, 179+ for 109p. 
Clements sold, 1776, to Jared Erwin, of Rockingham, for 200p. 

Wright, Peter — 286 — JR at Covington — P, 1750 — divided between Peter, 
Jr., and John (sons). 

SURVEYS OF 1750-1754 

Clendennin, Thomas— 1754 — 68— Warm Springs Run--P, 1757— sold, 
1797, by Thomas, Jr., (son) to Anthony Mustoe and William Chambers for 

Cochran, Patrick— 1750— 24 — JR— P, 1765, James Scott— sold, 1768, to 
Patrick Corrigan for 20p. 

Cochran, Patrick— 1750— 18— CP—P, 1765, James Scott. 

Crockett, John— 1750— 24— CP. 

Davis, Patrick— 1750— 44 — CP below Robert Crockett — P, 1767— sold, 
1770, to James Milligan for 30p, and by him to William Griffith, 1776, for 

Dickenson, Adam — 1750 — 135 — JR, P, 1761, Zopher Carpenter — sold to 
Michael Mallow, 1789, for 275p. 

Dickinson, Adam— 1751— 33— DC— P, 1763, John Dickenson. 

Seely, Jeremiah— 1754 — 100— Dry Run of JR— P, 1761, Peter Wright. 

Thompson, Edward— 1751— 42— CP adj Knox's 93 A— P, 1770, William 

Warwick, William^l750— 50— JR— P, 1761, William Gillispie. 

Wilson, William— 1754— 100— JR—P, 1765. 

Wilson, Hercules— 1754 — 74 — head of CP—P, 1774, George Wilson. 

Wilson, George— 1750— 90— br of SC— P, 1761, James McCay— sold, 
1793, by William McCay to Charles Donally for 25p. 

Other patents for this region, in the period 1741-1769 inclusive, are 
these, the acreage, date and descriptions being given consecutively: 

Adams, Thomas — 340 — 1767 — adjoining Hot Springs survey. 

Arbuckle, James — 400 — 1749 — north side James below Island Ford. 

Boggs, James — 23 5 — 1766 — JR — between Jackson and William Hamilton. 

Clark, John— 210— 1769— BC of James. 

Davis, John— 45— 1769— JR. 

Dunlap, William— 100— 1750— mo BC. 

Fulton, Thomas — 115 — 1759 — west side JR. 

Gellispie, Hugh— 85— 1769— west side SC. 

Grove, John — 400 — 1741 — including fork at mo of CP. 

Hanly, Archibald — 58 — 1765 — northwest side of CP. 

Hardin, Benjamin — 44 — 1775 — head of JR. 

Hanley, Archibald — 58 — 1765 — northwest side CP. 

Hardin, Benjamin — 44 — 1755 — head of JR. 

Henry, William — 120 — 1759 — main branch James opp. mo. of CP. 

Hicklin, Hugh: (1) 130— 1769— CP (2) 100— 1758— on a draft of BP. 


Hicklin, Thomas — 68 — 1761 — BP — adj. Andrew Lewis land on southwest. 

Lewis, Thomas— 1300— 1763— "the valley" of BC. 

Lewis William — six surveys on BC, in 1763, of 110, 148, 172, 220, 187, 
and 100 A. and one at Vanderpool of 270. 

Hugart, Thomas— 65— 1760— JR. 

Mann, William — 1^9 — 1765 — JR below BC. 

Mathews, Sampson and George — 69 — 1769 — head SC. 

McCallister, James— 100— 1760— JR. 

McCay, James— 90— 1761— SC. 

McClenahan, William— 50— 1769— BC below Davis. 

McCutchen, William— 166— 1760 ( ?)— mo of Cedar of JR. 

Mcllwain, Alexander — 190 — 1761 — branch of Cedar. 

McMurray, William — 20 — 1761 — McMurray Creek of CP. 

McSherry, Luke— 186— 1761— BC of James. 

Miller, Robert— 150— 1762— JR. 

Montgomery, John— 30 — 1769— BP. 

Montgomery, James — 5-1 — 1757 — northwest side JR. 

Moore, David— 200— 1763— Bolar Run. 

Muldrock, Jean: (1) 30— 1769— fork of James at CP (2) 33—1769— 
James River adj. homestead. 

Preston, William— 130— 1763— small branch of BP. William Preston 
in 1769 took 6 surveys on Pott's Creek of 250, 200, 150, 300, and 95 A. 

Simpson, James — +5— 1761— BC of CP. 

Switchard, Henry— 85— 1755— BC of James. 

Wade, Dawson— 125— 1767— branch of BP. 

Wright, Peter— 100— 1767— Pott's Creek. 

Young, James — 98 — 1769 — head branch of CP. 

The foregoing surveys do not include all the individual patents in 
Warm Springs Valley by the Lewises, Bullitts, etc. 

The new names occurring among the patentees for the remainder of the 
eighteenth century are but few. The following are all we are reasonably 
sure of: 

Adams, Robert Dowden, Michael Persinger, Jacob 

Alley, William Evans, Evan Poage, John 

Baxter, John Hosaw, Andrew Putnam, John 

Berry, John Hume, William Rhea, William 

Boggs, James Logue, Samuel Richardson, Robert 

Bullitt, Thomas Mason, Joseph Rockey, Henry 

Bullitt, Cuthbert McColgan, Edward Satchel], William, Jr. 

Clark, Samuel McDonald, Samuel Sloan, James 

Coole, Richard Morrison, Ilu^'i Sydnor, Richard 

Cowardton, John O'Hara, Daniel Wildridge, William 

Dickey, John Oliver, John Wooten, William 

Dixon, William Park, Benjamin 


We now mention several early purchasers, which in some instances 
seem to relate to the original patents. 

Dennis Callahan of John Dickenson — 76 of tract of 195 acres — Ugly 
Creek— 5p— 1793. 

Christopher Clark of Peter Wright— 96— JR— 50p— 1791. 

Jacob Cleek of Alexander McFarland — 213 — JR below Given — 400p — 

Henry Dill of Peter Hubbard— 285 of 600 deeded, 1767, by John Wilson 
to William Rhea— Mill Cretk— 130p— 1792. 

John Gillespie of Martha McCroskey, sole daughter and heir of Hugh 
Gillespie, of Greenbrier— 85— SC— 20p— P, 1769—1795. 

James Harris of John Cartmill — 140 — CP between James Hughart and 
Nathan Crawford and corner Samuel Cartmill — lOOp — 1733 — sold by Har- 
ris, 1792, to Isaac Mayse for 120p. 

James Johnson of Robert Armstrong, Jr., — 100 — JR both sides Robert's 
Run— 50p— 1793. 

Thomas and Joseph Kincaid of John Eddy — 158 — 237p — 1797. 

Robert and James McAvoy of Joseph Carpenter — 13-1 — Little Valley — 
lOOp— 1799. 

Richard McCallister of John Dickenson — 113 — Ugly — 15p — 1793 

John McCorkle of Patrick Miller— 17— CP adj William Dickey— 3p— 

John McCorkle of John and William Dickey — 231 (2 surveys) — CP — 
lOOp— 1794. 

Thomas Milhollen of Thomas Fitzpatrick — 32 — Cedar Creek — 30p — 
P, 1779—1792. 

Hugh Tiffany of James Blake— 13— SC— lip— 1793. 

Alexander Simpson of Charles Donally — 75 — SC — 50p — 1792. 

William Smythe of Peter Wright— 176— JR— 50p— 1791. 

Stephen Wanless of Hugh Morrison — 95 — SC at forks of road above 
James Morrow — 40p — 1792. 

Jacob Warrick of William Lewis — 400 — Clover Lick on Greenbrier — 
600p— 1797. 

The last mentioned sale looks like a high figure, considering the sit- 
uation. , 



INCE only a very minor portion of Bath was covered by 
the early holdings of the pioneer families, it is possible to 
group these holdings into several tolerably well defined 
areas of settlement. The names we aportion among 
these areas are not presented as an exhaustive list or as one that is 
free from error, even so far as it goes. 

The Dickenson settlement may be considered as extending along 
the Cowpasture from the gorge below Fort Lewis into the bend at 
Griffith's Knob, and as including the lower course of Stuart's Creek 
and the occupied part of Porter's Mill Creek. The more conspicu- 
ous of the earlier names associated with this belt are Abercrombie, 
Beard, Clendennin, Coffey, Crockett, Daugherty, Dickenson, Donal- 
ly, Douglass, Gay, Gillispie, Graham, Hicklin, Insminger, Kelso, 
Kincaid, Laverty, Madison, Mayse, McCay, McClung, McDannald, 
Millroy, Mitchell, Muldrock, O'Hara, Porter, Ramsey, Scott, Simp- 
son, Sitlington, Sloan, Stuart, Thompson, Waddell, Walker, Wat- 

The Fort Lewis settlement began a little above the mouth of 
Thompson's Creek and extended up the Cowpasture to Laurel Gap. 
Here we find the names, Benson, Black, Cartmill, Cowardin, Dickey, 
Feamster, Francisco, Frame, Hall, Hughart, Jackson, Knox, Lewis, 
Mayse, McCreery, Miller, Montgomery, Moody, Moore, Wallace. 

The upper Cowpasture settlement included the bottoms on that 
river between Laurel Gap and the mouth of Shaw's Fork and on the 
lower course of the latter stream. Here were the Devericks, Erwin, 
Gwin, Johns, Shaw, and Steuart families. 

The upper Mill Creek settlement occupied the basin of that stream 
above Panther Gap. Names associated with this somewhat limited 
space are Bratton, McDonald, Putnam, Rhea, Swearingen. 

The Green Valley settlement embraced the upper basin of 
Stuart's Creek and is connected with the following names: Bell, 
Crawford, Eddy, Hall, Hcpler, Fit/patrick, McCausland, Morrow, 
and Warrick. 


The Bullpasture settlement stretched along the entire course of 
that stream from its source nearly to the Bullpasture Gap. Here 
the names are Beathe, Black, Bodkin, Bradshaw, Burnside, Carlile, 
Curry, Davis, Duffield, Erwin, Estill, Ferguson, Graham, Harper, 
Hempenstall, Hicklin, Hiner, Hynes, Jones, Justice, Lockridge, Mal- 
com, McCoy, Peebles, Pullin, Siron, Summers, Wiley. 

Adjacent to the Bullpasture valley, and just within the Bath line, 
is the Red Holes, or Burnsville, settlement. The earlier name is 
derived either from the reddish loam exposed to view in the sinkholes, 
or from the artificial licks, made by driving stakes into the ground, 
withdrawing them, and then filling the holes with salt. Here David 
Frame patented a tract that nominally covered 1150 acres. But 
when sold in 1792 to Elisha Williams, John Burns, and James and 
Daniel Monroe, the lines proved so elastic as to include 1363 acres. 

The bottoms on Jackson's River are less continuous than those 
of the Cowpasture. The "pockets" in which they occur were main- 
ly gathered into a few large surveys. The northernmost of these 
pockets begins beyond the Highland line and may be called the Wilson 
settlement. The names found here are Bratton, Cleek, Given, 
Gwin, McFarland, Wilson. 

For several miles below the Wilson settlement Jackson's River 
is closely confined between lofty hills. Then comes the Fort Din- 
widdie settlement, comprising two very long surveys by William 
Jackson and Adam Dickenson. Here are the names Bourland, Byrd, 
Cameron, Davis, Dean, Jackson, McClintic. 

A short distance east of the Wilson settlement is Little Valley, 
where the early names are Carpenter, McAvoy, and Pritt. 

Beginning below the Fort Dinwiddie settlement, reaching nearly 
to Covington, and extending up the valley of Cedar Creek was the 
Fort Mann settlement, where these names occur: Armstrong, Bol- 
lar, Elliot, Kincaid, Kirk, Mann, McGuffin, Montgomery, Morris, 
Robinson, Walker. 

Around and just below Covington was the Fort Young settle- 
ment, occupied by the Carpenters, Mallows, Seelys, and Wrights. 

On Great Back Creek, stretching some distance above and below 
the mouth of Little Back Creek, was the Vance or Mountain Grove 
settlement where lived the Baxters, Gregorys, Hamiltons, Kellys, and 


On the lower course of Potts Creek were the Potts and Persinger 

On the Cowpasture, below the pass at Griffith Knob, were sev- 
eral pioneers, but our knowledge of their names is quite unsatisfactory. 

The Warm Springs basin and the upper valley of Falling Spring 
Run may be termed the Warm Springs settlement. But so closely 
were the lands in this locality monopolized by wealthy non-residents, 
that most of. the people living here in the early days were tenants, and 
we know little as to who they were. This was not quite so much the 
case at the Falling Springs end, which is associated with the Cham- 
bers, Massie, and Mustoe families. The three tracts held by Ga- 
briel Jones of Port Republic begin at Healing Springs and run a long 
way to the north. North, east, and south of him were the lands of 
Thomas and Cuthbert Bullitt. John Bollar had 400 acres alongside 
Jones. Against the present Alleghany line were the holdings of Oli- 
ver and Thompson. Immediately to the south was Thomas Massie's 
tract of 3329 acres. The John Lewis survey ran north from Warm 
Springs itself, and one owned by John Cowardin ran in the direction 
of Warm Springs gap. 

Adam Dickenson, the leading pioneer on the lower Cowpasture. 
was in 1733 living at Hanover, New Jersey. In 1742 he was an 
ironworker in Lancaster County, Pennsylvania, but seems to have 
moved in the same year to Prince George County, Maryland. It 
was at this date that he entered into a bond in favor of Thomas 
Lindsay, whereby he was to patent 1,000 acres on Clover Creek, 
"otherwise ye Cow Pasture"; and place two families on the tract. 
Four years later, he brought suit against Roger Hunt, Lindsay's as- 
signee, for a failure to comply with the contract. He must have 
come to the Cowpasture himself by 1744. When Augusta was or- 
ganized, at the close of 1745. he alone, of the 21 justices in the first 
county court, represented the portion of the county west of Shenan- 
doah Mountain. His grist-mill was evidently the first in this region, 
and the church built on his homestead was undoubtedly the first house 
of worship among the southern Alleghanies. Dickenson acquired at 
least 3321 acres of choice hind. He died intestate about 1760. His 
persona] property was appraised by his neighbors, James Gillespie, 
James McCay, John Young, and Andrew Sitlington, at almost 
$1,000, easily the equivalent of <"\000 today. The estate included 


two slaves, 33 cattle, and a wagon valued at $23.33. The only book 
was a large Bible. Abigail, a daughter, married William Mc- 
Clung. Another daughter was Mary Davis. 

John, the only son of Adams Dickenson, was almost an exact con- 
temporary to George Washington. He was born in 1731 and died 
in 1799. At the age of 22 he was a captain of horse, and during the 
next 25 years he saw very much military service on the frontier. Af- 
ter being wounded in at least two skirmishes with the Indians, he re- 
ceived a severe hurt in the shoulder at the battle of Point Pleasant. 
For this injury he was granted a pension of 50 pounds ($166.67) a 
year. In 1777, with the rank of colonel, he returned to Point Pleas- 
ant at the head of a regiment of militia. In 1757 he was a justice of 
Augusta, but in 1779 he declined further service. Although ap- 
pointed a member of the first county court of Bath, he refused the 
honor. Colonel Dickenson was a large holder of real estate, owning 
land on the Greenbrier and even in North Carolina. He was of 
positive convictions and was influenced by high motives. His gen- 
erous impulse appears in his kindness to the unfortunate Selim, and 
in his refusal to deliver up some converted Indians whom the gov- 
ernor assumed to be spies of the French. By a clause in his will, no 
liquor was to be served at his interment, and in this matter he stood 
against a very pernicious custom of his day. 

His children were Mary, Martha, Nancy, Adam, Jean, and 
John. Mary and Martha married, in order of mention, Samuel and 
John Shrewsbury, who, after being prominent in Bath, migrated to 
West Virginia. The only grandson in the male line to finish his 
days in Bath was John Usher Dickenson, who returned about 1850 
and was the first proprietor of the hotel at Millboro. 

William Jackson gave his name to the river which runs more than 
three miles through the land he took up. He may have been the 
first settler on its upper course, although he could not have been living 
in this valley in 1740, when he succeeded James Pickett as con- 
stable. His home on Jackson's River was probably near the site of 
Fort Dinwiddie. Jane and William were children. The former 
married Archibald Bourland, his executor. The son, and probably 
the son-in-law also, went to North Carolina. Whether the early 
Jacksons of the Cowpasture were related to this family we do not 
know. William Jackson died June 1, 1750, and his suits against 


Robert Abercrombie and Jacob Marlin were thereby abated. His 
personality of $1 106.07 ranked him among the nabobs of early Bath. 
The appraisement by Ralph Laverty, George Wilson, and Archi- 
bald Elliot mentions 23 horses, 18 cattle, and some timothy seed. 
A lancet, and the instrument of torture styled a "tooth drawers" 
would appear to indicate that he made some pretensions to the heal- 
ing art. It took, seven gallons of liquor to lubricate the sale of the 
personal effects. Archibald Bourland, the executor, named the fol- 
lowing persons at the "vandue": James Bourland, James Brown, 
Thomas Bryan, John Carlile, John Crockett, William Davis, Robert 
Duffield, Andrew Dunlap, Charles Dunlap, Archibald Elliot, Samuel 
Ferguson, Alexander Gillespie, John Graham, Napthalim Gregory, 
William Hamilton, John Harden, Michael Harper, George Lewis, 
James Lockridge, Joseph Mayse. Samuel McAlvery, Alexander 
Millroy, Nathan Patterson, David Stanley, John Warrick, John 
Williamson, George Wilson, and Alexander Wright. A number of 
these persons lived more than 20 miles away. 

According to C. K. Bolton, the following Ulster immigrants 
came from county Antrim. The Arbuckles, Campbells, Clarks, 
Crawfords, Givens, Harpers, Jacksons, Jamesons, McCays; from 
Derry, the Grahams, Lockridges, Pattons, Rheas; from Down, the 
Carliles, Dunlaps, Mathews, Steuarts ; from Donegal, the Brat- 
tons, Hamiltons; from Londonderry, the Kincaids; from- Tyrone, 
the Burnsides, Knoxes, and Walkups. 

Certain of the families who have migrated from this country include 
names of considerable prominence. Thus James B. McCreery and 
his cousin, Thomas C. McCreery, of Kentucky, are great grandsons 
of Robert, son of John McCreery, of the Cowpasture. Both these men 
have served in the United States Senate, and the former has twice 
been governor of his state. Dr. Charles McCreery, the first physi- 
cian to remove the collar-bone in a surgical operation, which was 
done in 1813, was a son of Robert. By way of North Caro- 
lina we are told that Zebulon B.. Robert B.. and Robert E. Vance 
of North Carolina, are of the Vance family of Back Creek. All 
three served in Congress. The first was also a famous governor of 
North Carolina, and the second was a brigadier general in the Con- 
federate army. Meigs County, Tennessee, is named for Return Jon- 
athan Meigs, a descendent of the Clendennins. C. C. O'Hara. an 


eminent geologist, appears to be a descendant of the O'Hara who 
once lived on the Cowpasture. William Bratton, one of the picked 
men of the Lewis and Clarke expedition of 1803, was a grandson of 
Robert Bratton of the Calfpasture. A monument stands over his 
grave in Indiana giving his services in that famous expedition. Col- 
onels Robert and John McFarland, early pioneers of Jefferson coun- 
ty, Tennesse, are descendants of Duncan McFarland, as was also 
William McFarland, a congressman from that state. 



(ISTILLED water is chemically pure, but is tasteless and 
therefore insipid. The "pure, cool spring water" we hear 
about is pure only with respect to its harmlessness. After 
y the water from the clouds has had time to soak through 
the ground it has become charged with various mineral ingredients, and 
is thereby rendered palatable. Water that has been much in contact 
with limestone or calcareous earth is called "hard." If, on the other 
hand, there had been a filtering through deposits containing little lime, 
we call the water "soft." But when ground water is unfit to drink, it 
is rarely because of the minerals it has taken up. The harmfulness 
is usually due to organic matter, either of vegetable or animal tissue. 

But while the water from wells and springs is mineral water in 
the strict sense of the term, it is customary to regard as mineral waters 
only those which have distinct medicinal effect. The character of 
such waters varies with the chemical composition of the rock and earth 
from which they issue. Beds of slate often contain the bright yellow 
particles known as iron pyrites, or "fool's gold." The yellow color 
is due to the sulphur in the pyrites. On exposure to the air, these par- 
ticles decompose into the sulphates of iron and alumina, and give 
rise to springs of alum, sulphur, or chalybeate waters. The valley 
of the Cowpasture abounds in slate formations, and hence the mineral 
springs, particularly of alum and sulphur waters, which there occur. 

The mineral springs of the Cowpasture are cool, while those of 
Warm Springs valley are warm. This difference is because of the 
geological structure of that valley. 

In the very deepest mines the temperature is so constantly and op- 
pressively hot that rlic miners tan work only in short shifts and with 
very little clothing. We can thus understand that if surface waters 
sink to very great depths, and thus come well within the influnece of 
the internal heat of the earth, they reappear with much higher tem- 
perature than are found in ordinary springs. They are also more 
heavily loaded with mineral, because heated water has a greater dis- 
solving power than cold water, and is more energetic in absorbing 


gases from the rocks through which it forces its way. The chemical 
action of this process tends to further increase the heat of the water. 

Let us suppose that a section of pipe is bent into two arms of un- 
equal length, and then placed in a vertical position, the elbow being 
embedded in redhot coals. If water is steadily poured into the upper 
arm, it will as steadily come out of the lower opening because water 
seeks to maintain a level. But it will issue at a higher temperature, 
because of the coals. This illustration will help to explain the ther- 
mal springs of Bath County. The Warm Springs Valley has the form 
of a canoe, but the mountain wall on the east is higher than the one 
on the west. It is also significant that all the thermal springs lie on 
the western side of the valley. In the first chapter of this book it 
was observed that the basin within this mountain rampart is largely 
occupied by an oval-shaped area of very early geologic origin. Sur- 
rounding this rock formation, and appearing next the surface as an oval 
ring, is a more recent stratum. If, now, this last-named deposit pass- 
ed underneath the other, and to a great depth, and if it were imper- 
vious to water, we would have a very easy explanation of the heated 
waters. However, the rock strata in this valley-floor are convex and 
not concave. Nevertheless, the rainwater falling on the sharp western 
slope of Warm Springs Mountain and reappearing as warm mineral 
water in the depression below, behaves in about the same manner as 
the water which in our illustration is poured into the upper end of 
the bent tube. 

The several springs differ in temperature, and this would indicate 
that their waters do not rise from an equal depth. It is also worthv 
of notice that the basin is cross-sectioned into sub-valleys, each, with 
one exception, having a thermal spring of its own. Each spring, or 
group of springs, lies near the upper entrance to a watergap in Valley 
Mountain. And as the mineral elements in the several springs dif- 
fer in number and also in proportion, it would indicate that the rock 
structure below the suface is not uniform. 

Lying mostly in Highland, but crossing into the northern confine 
of Bath is another canoe-shaped basin drained by Bolar Run. It pre- 
sents the same peculiarities as Warm Springs Valley, and has a group 
of thermal springs lving a little above its solitary watergap. 

Certain plants have medicinal qualities of one kind or another. 
To supplement them, certain mineral springs have great curative pow- 


ers, by reason of the gases and the solid ingredients which their waters 
hold in solution. And as it is an error of judgment to use any vege- 
table drug in a random manner, it is no less an error to use a given 
mineral water without regard to expert knowledge of its effects on the 
human svstem. The various springs of these two valleys differ in 
their healing qualities, one reaching one class of ailments, and anoth- 
er reaching to a certain extent a different class. The peculiarities of 
the individual patient are also to be taken into account. 

The Hot Springs of Bath are primarily a group of six flowing 
fountains of great volume. The leading one has a temperature of 
106 degrees and contains of mineral salts 43 grains to the gallon. The 
minerals held in solution are mainly calcium, magnesium, sodium, and 
potassium. Calcium, which is the basis of lime, is by far the most im- 
portant. The large proportion of it in all the springs of this valley is 
indeed what we might expect, since the entire floor of this basin con- 
sists of limestone strata. The Hot Springs also contain sulphuric and 
carbonic acids, and chlorine. These make various combinations with 
the four minerals already named. The waters are particularly bene- 
ficial in rheumatic ailments. They are also useful in nervous and dys- 
peptic disorders, and in liver, kidney, and female diseases. There are 
springs of soda, sulphur, and magnesia waters close by, and alum 
waters at a little greater distance. The magnesia water, issuing at a 
temperature of 100 degrees, acts as a mild alterative. The soda wat- 
ers, which have a temperature of 74 degrees, are serviceable in urinary 
complaints. The alum water is an excellent tonic and a mild yet cer- 
tain astringent. The very great depth from which all these springs 
rise, and the force with which they come to the surface, render them 
free from organic impurities. Otherwise, their medicinal value would 
be impaired, and they would be unfit for bottling. 

The Warm Springs, five miles northeast of the Hot Springs, have 
a temperature of 98 degrees and an outflow of 1200 gallons a minute. 
To style them warm rather than hot is incorrect. In temperature 
they are of the same class as the Hot Springs, and they contain a lar- 
ger variety of mineral elements. The principal ones which do not 
appear to be found in the other are carbonate of iron, sodium sulphate, 
and silicic acid. Taken as a beverage, the water is tonic, aperient, and 
diuretic. It is useful in nearly the same class of ailments as the waters 
of the Hot Springs, and is very advantageous in dyspepsia. 


The Healing Springs are about three miles southward from the 
Hot Springs. They are likewise of strong volume and their tem- 
perature is 84 degrees. They are more varied in composition than 
the Hot Springs. They may be said to possess about the same ele- 
ments that occur in the Warm Springs, but in differing proportions. 
A few ingredients do not appear to be found at either of the other 
places. As the name would indicate, these waters constitute a power- 
ful healing agent, and are bottled in large quantities. They are very 
good in affections of the skin, but are also used in rheumatism, in 
bronchial complaints, and in disorders of the urinary and digestive or- 
gans. 1 . ! j 

The Rubino Spring lies within a mile of the Healing Springs 
and is of the same character. 

Bolar Spring in Great Valley has a temperature of 74 degrees and 
an outflow of 1600 gallons a minute. Like the other thermal waters, 
it is highly charged with gases. Iodine and arsenic are present, but 
there has been no complete analysis. Taken internally, the water is 
diuretic and alterative, and mildly aperient. Taken externally, it 
enjoys much repute in ailments of the skin and in nasal catarrh. One 
mile noithward is the Burns Spring, 79 degrees warm and somewhat 
stronger in mineral qualities though of the same general nature. 

In the valley of the Cowpasture the best known of its mineral 
waters are the sulphur fountains at Millboro Springs and All Healing 
Springs, and the alum waters of Bath Alum and Wallawhatoola. 

The red men of America have a natural aptitude for the healing 
art. That the thermal waters of Bath had been known to them from 
time immemorial may be taken for granted. An attractive legend, 
published in 1838 in the Southern Literary Messenger, relates that a 
young brave was making his first journey across the Alleghanies in 
order to carry a message from his powerful tribe to the council fire 
kindling on the shore of the Great Water. The shades of night over- 
took him in Warm Springs Valley. The darkness was profund, and 
the wind was moaning dismally among the tree-tops. On the sodden 
ground he could find no comfortable place to sleep, and he was too 
weary to climb the mountain lying across his path. But continuing 
to search, he came upon an opening in a laurel thicket. Here was a 
pool in which he could see the reflection of the evening star. The 
waters were so clear that the pebbly bottom could be made out. The 


warm vapor that rose to his nostrils tempted him into the pool so that 
he might bathe his aching limbs. To his surprise and delight the 
temperature was of blood warmth. By the strong current issuing 
from the basin, he knew he had found a spring. He laid himself 
down, and the Spirit of Strength gave him new life and hope. At 
dawn the Young Panther strode with easy step up the bold mountain 
wall. At the council fire on the eve of that day, no other warrior was 
more graceful in address, more commanding in manner, or more sa- 
gacious in council. 

But this legend of a poetic race, seemingly adapted to the time of 
arrival of the first English settlers, is not to be taken as a precise 
fact of history. It is an expression in symbolic form of the virtues 
of these health-giving waters, as they had been experienced during 
centuries upon centuries by the wild men of the forest. 

A family tradition relates that Andrew Lewis came accidentally 
upon the Hot Springs while escaping from hostile Indians. On the 
other hand, it is alleged that a knowledge of them had been carried 
to the capital of Virginia before the expedition under Spottswood in 
1716. That white explorers were told of these thermal waters by 
the Indians is very probable. Be this as it may, Lewis was very mat- 
ter of fact, and seems to have been more deeply impressed with the 
limestone lands of Warm Springs Valley than with the hygienic value 
of its remarkable fountains. 

In 1750, which was during the early infancy of the settlement of 
Bath, the springs were already well known. Thomas Walker, on his 
return from a prospecting tour into the southwest extremity of Vir- 
ginia, makes this entry in his journal, the date being July 9, 1750: 

"We went to the hot Springs and found Six Invalides there. The 
Spring Water is very Clear & Warmer than new Milk, an there is a 
Spring of cold Water within 20 feet of the Warm one." 

Between 1763 and 1767, Andrew Lewis surveyed in his own 
name 884 acres in Warm Springs Valley. Meanwhile, Thomas 
Bullitt, a fellow soldier who in one instance acted in partnership with 
Lewis, surveyed 1120 acres. These tracts do not include the lands 
they surveyed along the course of Falling Springs Run. No more 
surveys are recorded for quite a while, for the evident reason that 
Lewis, Bullitt, and Dickenson had taken the cream of the agricultural 


lands in the valley. It is to be noted that the entry of a tract of pub- 
lic land usually took place some years before the actual survey. 

The Lewises reduced to patent 1886 acres, and Bullitt 1248. 
Gabriel Jones is credited with 720 acres and John Dickenson with 
250. And as in the case of the surveys, these patents do not include 
the tracts on the upper course of Falling Springs Run. Thus a few 
influential non-residents monopolized the valley. 

A patent of 1764, calling for 300 acres, and including the Hot 
Springs, was taken by Thomas Bullitt and Andrew and Thomas 
Lewis. These men entered into an agreement to build a hotel and 
stock it with the distilled and fermented liquors which in their day 
as in ours were deemed by many persons to be superior to the bever- 
age prepared by Dame Nature. So far as the Lewises were con- 
cerned this plan was not carried out. They made an arrangement 
with Bullitt whereby access to the springs was secured to each party. 
Bullitt erected a hotel about 1764, portions of which remained until 
destroyed, together with a newer building, in the fire of 1901. In 
1790, Bullitt authorized John Oliver to grant twenty-year leases on 
his lands in Warm Springs Valley. But the Hot Springs tract was 
excepted, and so was another supposed to contain an undeveloped 

As early a 1778, Cuthbert Bullitt, then a resident of this valley, 
petitioned the assembly that 50 acres of his land be laid off into lots 
and a town established at "Little Warm Springs," this being the 
early name for the Hot Springs. He remarks that it was extremely 
difficult to procure building materials. 

In 1793 the owners of this property were Nathaniel Wilkenson, 
John Littlepage, and John Oliver. They petitioned the Assembly, 
under the date of October 23, "That they have laid off a town of 
one hundred half-acre Lotts with convenient Streets on this land at 
Hot Springs in the County of Bath, and that the benefit of those 
Waters (especially Scorbutick and Rheumatick Complaints) may be 
enjoyed by all who may have occasion to visit those springs, they 
pray the said Town may be established by an act to be passed for 
that purpose." 

The Act was at once passed. The trustees named in the charter 
were Sampson Mathews, Samuel Vance, Thomas Hughart, Charles 
Cameron, George Poage, John Montgomery, John White, John 


Lewis, John Bollar, Anthony Mustoe, and Samuel Shrewsbury. 
They were authorized to make such rules and orders concerning the 
building of houses as they might think best. They were also em- 
powered to settle all disputes relating to the boundaries of lots. 
Whenever the purchaser of a lot had built a house at least 16 feet 
square, and provided it with a chimney of brick or stone, he was to 
be entitled to all the rights and privileges which were enjoyed by 
the freehold inhabitants of unincorporated towns. 

The lot drawing was held in Staunton, July 14, 1794. William 
Forbes who drew ticket 51, purchased a one-half acre lot at "Hott 
Bath" for 10 pounds ($33.33). 

In 1820 the mail came only three times a week to the resorts in 
this valley, and the ordinary postage was \SH cents. 

But as a resort for health or pleasure, Hot Springs languished un- 
til the hotel was purchased in 1832 by Doctor Thomas Goode. Un- 
der his regime the hotel was 200 feet long and two stories high. It 
was well filled during the summer season, because the resort was 
now swiftly coming into a wide-reaching repute. In the summer 
of 1838, Hot Springs and the other resorts within a radius of 40 
miles were visited by about 6000 people. The guests had to come by 
stage coach or private conveyance. To arrive from Philadelphia in 
four days, the traveler had to make prompt connections among the 
various stage lines, and to submit to being jolted in a coach for 16 
hours a day. And yet from the far more distant lowlands of the 
Gulf States came many cotton planters and their families. It is 
hardly necessary to add that no such journeys could be made by weak 

P. H. Nicklin, writing of Hot Springs in 1835, says that "at 
first sight, appearances do not invite a long sojourn." He speaks of 
the old frame hotel and bath houses and several rows of cabins. 
But the table fare was very good, and "the scenery grows into your 
affection the deeper the longer you remain." 

Doctor Goode died in 1858 and there were more changes in own- 
ership. Finally, in 1890, the Virginia Hot Springs Company came 
into control. This corporation also acquired title to the Warm and 
the Healing Springs. 

The tract of 140 acres which includes the Warm Springs was sur- 
veyed in 1751 for John Lewis, Sr., and John Lewis, Jr. The younger 


John settled on the land, dying here in 1788. The same year he sold 
to William Bowyer of Staunton two one-half acre lots for $200, 
these being on "a line with the large dwelling house and store house 
now built." 

In the summer of 1781, the Virginia Assembly, which had ad- 
journed from Charlottesville to Staunton, voted to adjourn again to 
Warm Springs, and thus would have made this hamlet a third tem- 
porary state capital, had the British cavalry made good their threat- 
ened raid into the Shenandoah Valley. A writer of 1792 remarks 
that it lay "on a great leading road from Richmond to the Illinois 
and Kentucky and several of the western countys" ; that it was 
the "numerous resort of all ranks of people." But he adds that the 
real estate was owned by minors, and that rent was under such re- 
strictions as nearly to forbid population. 

Enjoying the prestige of being the county seat, Warm Springs 
was, during the stage-coach era, as widely and favorably known as 
its nearby rival. In fact, Hot Springs is sometimes mentioned in the 
early surveys as Little Warm Springs. Prior to the purchase of the 
springs and hotel by the corporation which also controls the other 
resorts of the valley, the owner was the late Colonel John L. Eubank, 
secretary of the Virginia Secession Convention of 1861. 

Healing Springs, like the "Hot" and the "Warm," as the others 
are popularly known in the county, has attracted to its neighborhood 
a considerable village. But in a social point of view this resort is 
much less conspicuous. Until about 1850 it was quite undeveloped. 

Five miles east of Warm Springs, and a little beyond the foot of 
the intervening mountain, is Bath Alum. During the many years 
when the pike leading toward Staunton was the only entrance to 
Bath from the east, Bath Alum was a well known summer resort. 
But no village grew up around it, and the brick hotel was at length 
closed by an owner who was indifferent to the tourist business. It is 
now unvisited and stands in quiet loneliness amid fields and forests. 

The hotel at Millboro Springs was opened by John U. Dicken- 
son a few years before the war of 1861, and being within three miles 
of a railroad station, it enjoys a good patronage. Wallawhatoola 
Spring, a mile down the Cowpasture, is a private resort only. Nim- 
rod Hall, three miles still farther below, is without the adjunct of an 
important mineral spring. Panther Spring in Panther Gap is con- 


trolled by the Alleghany Inn, at Goshen. All Healing Spring, at 
the south end of Shenandoah Mountain, is little developed as a re- 

The hotels of Warm Spring Valley heavily preponderate in draw- 
ing visitors to Bath. As a field for health and pleasure, this upland 
is exceptionally favored. In the matter of climate it has advantages 
over the outside portion of the county. The towering mountain 
wall shields it from storms. The several watergaps on the west 
side, the absence of any stream coursing lengthwise through the val- 
ley, and the considerable elevation of its floor above the level of Jack- 
son's River, combine to exempt this locality from the morning fogs 
which hover over the river bottoms during the warm season. In conse- 
quence the air is more than usually dry for a mountain valley, and 
even in the winter season many a day is mild and sunny. 

General David H. Strother*, better known as Porte Crayon, 
speaks of "the matchless gift of beauty with which Heaven has en- 
dowed this happy region, its beautiful and invigorating atmosphere, 
its abundance even to superfluity in all the good things that make it a 
desirable residence for man. It is a picture, soft and luxuriant, of 
rolling plains and rich woodlands, watered by crystal streams, en- 
riched with rare and curious gems wrought by the plastic hand of 
Nature, all superbly set in an azure frame of mountains, beautiful al- 
ways, and sometimes rising into sublimity." 

In 1856, the three leading resorts in Bath paid the following in 
license fees: Warm Springs, $114.59; Hot Springs, $100.84; Bath 
Alum, $87.09. 

The corporation now owning the resorts has at a large outlay sup- 
plemented the advantages bestowed by nature. Among the improv- 
ments is first the railroad spur of 25 miles which connects Hot Springs 
with the main line of the Chesapeake & Ohio at Covington. The 
present very modern hotel, with accommodations for 700 guests, more 
than equals the combined capacity of the hostelries at Warm Springs 
and Healing Springs. Roadways totalling 15 miles are owned and 
controlled by the management. A large share of this mileage is 
macadamized. Bridle-paths and foot-paths have been cut through 
the woods to the mountain summits on either side, particularly to Flag 
Rock on Warm Springs Mountain. 

•Nephew to Doctor Archer P. Strother, a highly respected citizen who 
lived between Hot Springs and Warm Springs and died in 1856. 



jHE pioneer history of the Bath area starts with the be- 
ginning of white settlement about 1745, and comes to 
a close with the organization of the county in 1791. By 
the end of the half-century the region had become well 
populated, according to the standard which then and for many years 
later prevailed in the Southland. 

But not until after Bath had become a county was there any 
group of houses large enough to be termed a village. There were 
a few stores and gristmills, and a few dwelling houses were licensed 
as taverns. Only in one instance was there a sufficient nucleus to be 
called a hamlet. This exception was Warm Springs. At Hot 
Springs there could have been no more than a primitive hotel with 
its accessory buildings. 

The earliest tavern licenses we know of were those granted to 
George Wilson in 1758, to James Ward in 1759, and to John Dick- 
enson in 1763. The rates which the tavern-keeper might not exceed 
were minutely prescribed by the county court, and had to be posted in 
the public room. By a ruling of the court of Botetourt in 1775, the 
charge for a "warm diet with good meat" was one shilling, or 16 2-3 
cents. For a cold meal it was 10^4 cents. If the guest slept alone, 
his lodging cost him half a shilling. If two or more slept in the 
same bed, the charge to each was a third of a shilling. Pasturage or 
hay for 24 hours cost 10H cents. All hostelries kept intoxicants in 
variety, and the drinking habit must have been very general. The 
charge at this time for rum, whiskey, or peach brandy was one dollar 
a gallon. For three pints of toddy made with half a pint of rum and 
"single refined sugar" the charge was 21 cents. The books of Wil- 
liam Crow, who was a merchant of Staunton in 1760-70, show few 
very long accounts, yet scarcely a day passed without several charges 
for drinks. A petition of 1754 condemns the selling by ordinaries of 
large quantities of liquor at extravagant rates, whereby money is 
drained out of the country. The signers express their intention of 
making their own liquor so as to keep their money in the home neigh- 


borhood. Among the 91 signers who "felt the smart" of this state of 
things were Archibald Armstrong, John Allen, Joseph Bell, John Car- 
lile, James Gay, Matthew Harper, James Knox, James Montgomery, 
Loftus Pullin, and James Scott. 

The first definite mention of a store is that of Sampson and George 
Mathews at Cloverdale. It was built about 1775. The first store 
we read of at Warm Springs was that of White, Kirk and Company 
in 1787. Until local stores, began to appear, the merchants of Staun- 
ton had a monopoly of the Bath trade, except so far as they had to 
compete with traveling pedlers. This competition must have been 
considerable. The pedler went everywhere and was a welcome visi- 

The earliest mill license seems to be the one issued to Adam Dick- 
enson February 12, 1747. It must have been a new mill that was built 
on the Dickenson plantation by William Hamilton about 1763. In 
that year the labor that had been put into the new building was pro- 
nounced by David Davis and Samuel Vance as worth four pounds 
cash, or $13.33. The Hamilton mill was doubtless to replace one 
burned by the Indians. The second mill license is that in favor of 
George Wilson in August, 1747. In 1750 John Justice built for 
William Wilson on Bolar Run a tubmill at the contract price of $20. 
It was to have been completed by May 1, but the builder was much 
behind time. Wilson sued for 20 pounds damages, and Patrick Mar- 
tin, William Hamilton, and David Davis, ordered by the court to 
view the mill, reported it insufficient. In the spring of 1753 John 
McCreery put in a mill on the Cowpasture, just below Ebbing Spring. 
The first mention of a sawmill is in 1761. The owner was George 
Wilson, and the site is probably on the upper course of Stuart's Creek. 

Until 1852, the county court in Virginia was a close corporation 
and had extensive powers. For a long time there was no higher tri- 
bunal than the Governor's Council, a body corresponding to the 
present state senate. When a new county was created, its justices 
were nominated by the court of the parent county. Whenever a 
county court was to be enlarged, or when vacancies were to be filled, 
the court made its own nominations. In either case, the nominations 
were passed upon by the governor and the appointments were made 
by him. He also chose the sheriff and the commissioned officers of the 
militia from the men nominated by the court. But it was the court 


itself that appointed the county clerk, the constables, and the over- 
seers of the roads. It passed judgment on all offenses except felonies 
and high treason, and in the case of such criminals as were negro slaves 
it could decree the death penalty and order the sheriff to execute it. 

Under British rule the highest county official was the county lieu- 
tenant. He was a sort of deputy governor, and when the militia 
were called out he held the rank of colonel. The coroner was a con- 
servator of the peace, and his office was much more important than 
it is now. 

There was a property qualification for voters, and a considerable 
number of men were thus deprived of the use of the elective franchise. 
Yet the only dignitaries the colonial voter had a regular opportunity 
to elect were members of the House of Burgesses. Until 1776 the 
governor was sent from England under appointment by the British 
crown, and he acted as its personal representative. His salary was 
large and it was paid by the colony. He lived in much pomp and 
wielded a great influence. At the close of his term he usually re- 
turned to Britain. 

Until local government was organized in Augusta, which was not 
until the close of 1745, its settlers had to go to Orange to attend court, 
a distance from Fort Lewis of over 100 miles. The first justices 
from its own territory were John Lewis and James Patron. The 
former seems to have been commissioned in 1739. There was no res- 
ident justice in the Bath area until Adam Dickenson was appointed in 
1745. John Dickenson was chosen in 1756. Whether the William 
Wilson who was serving in the same year was the man of that name 
living on Jackson's River, we cannot determine. Charles Lewis was 
appointed in 1763, but declined to serve. Jacob Warwick was on the 
court in 1778, and John McCreery, Jr., in 1781, but in the year fol- 
lowing both these men declined further service because of the distance 
to the courthouse. 

The first local coroner we read of was John McCreery, Jr., who 
was serving in 1779. The first constable was James Mayse, ap- 
pointed by Orange, February 28, 1745. The June court of the same 
year ordered him to qualify at its next meeting. Wallace Estill and 
James Hughart succeeded Mayse in 1747. Later constables whom 
we can identify as belonging to Greater Bath were these: 


Ralph Laverty — 1748 Thomas Thompson — 1763 

Archibald Elliott— 1749 Alexander Black— 1763 

James Stuart — 1751 Thomas Cartmill — 1767 

William Daugherty— 1752 Joseph McClung— 1763 

Henry Gay— 1753 Richard Mayse— 1768 

John Byrd— 1755 Thomas Wright— 1770 

James Bourland — 1756 Andrew Hamilton — 1770 

Andrew Muldrock — 1756 Andrew McCausland — 1780 

Wright and Hamilton were appointed by the Botetourt court. 
Both represented Jackson's River, the former from that section of the 
valley above the "bent." 

Another close corporation within each county was the vestry. It 
had charge of the local interests of the Church of England. This 
was the established church in Virginia and was supported by public 
taxation. The taxes for this purpose were levied by the vestry, which 
had also the care of the poor, and it bound out the children of illegiti- 
mate birth. When a new county was formed, the members of its 
first vestry were chosen by the qualified voters. But with a curious in- 
consistency, the board was thenceforward self-perpetuating. It filled 
its own vacancies and was a close corporation like the county court. 
The executive officers of the vestry were the two church-wardens 
chosen from its own membership. 

The laws were harsh, although a lax administration of severe 
laws was often winked at. Under British rule, Virginia recognized 
27 offenses as punishable by death. Imprisonment for debt contin- 
ued until the middle of the nineteenth century. Lashes at the public 
whipping-post, on the bare back and "well laid on," were frequently 
ordered, 39 being the limit at any one time. Women were thus 
punished as well as men. 

The first lawsuit pertaining to the Bath area and recorded in 
Augusta, was that of Adam Dickenson against John Potts, called 
February 11,1 746. A gray mare was ordered sold to satisfy a debt 
of five pounds ($16.67). 

Until 1769 the county of Augusta had for its eastern boundary 
the crest of the Blue Ridge from the Tennessee line to a point nearly 
east of Port Republic. Westward it was understood as extending 
tar enough to cover all the territory in that direction that was claim- 
ed by Virginia. Hut in practical sense, the actual county was never 
larger than the area that was occupied. As population extended 


the real county grew in size. After it had become unwieldy it was 
subdivided. The first curtailment was in 1769, when Botetourt 
was authorized. The line between the old county and the new ran 
in a southeast and northwest direction, crossing the present county 
of Bath in the vicinity of Dunn's Gap between Hot Springs and 
Warm Springs. The Cowpasture was crossed at the Donally farm 
and Jackson's River at the John Davis place. James Trimble sur- 
veyed this line in 1770, so far as it lay between the Blue Ridge and 
the Alleghany Front. To reimburse him for the fees and expenses 
the court of Botetourt voted $53.88. Four years later the same 
court ordered that application be made to Augusta to have the line 
extended to the Ohio River. It does not appear that this was ever 
carried into effect. 

During 21 years the south of Bath and all of Alleghany lay under 
the jurisdiction of Botetourt. Until after 1776, however, there is 
no mention of justices or grandjurors from the Bath area. In 1770 
William Christian was directed to list the tithables on "James River 
and the Pastures from the mouth of Craig up to and including the 
Greenbrier settlement." Three years later Matthew Arbuckle took 
the list from the mouth of Craig up the James and Cowpasture to 
the county line, and up Jackson's River to William Hughart's. The 
rest of Jackson's River was assigned to John Robinson. In 1775, 
Richard Mayse had Arbuckle's district enlarged by being extended to 
Sweet Springs. The next official was William McClenahan, whose 
district comprised Arbuckle's and Robinson's. 

In 1772 Botetourt had 2202 tithables. Perhaps less than one- 
eighth of these were in the space now included in Bath, Alleghany, 
Greenbrier, and Monroe. For her first county buildings the sum 
of $1280 was voted. In 1772 Richard Mayse was appointed to look 
after putting up an office building for the use of the court. In 1770, 
169 wolf-heads were brought in, the bounty being $5.00 for a grown 
animal and $2.50 for a cub. 



!HEN this county became known to the whites it had no 
settled native population. It does not follow that such 
had always been the case. The probability is that it had 
at some time been inhabited. Be this as it may, Indian 
paths followed the valleys and crossed the ridges. These trails cer- 
tainly existed but are now forgotten. The settler was quick to use 
them whenever they could serve his purpose. Some portions of the 
aboriginal highways may still exist in the form of county roads. In 
fact the Indian road was sometimes broad enough to admit a wagon, 
and often it was deep on account of long continued use. A stream 
w T as ordinarily crossed at the mouth of a branch, because a bar will 
occur at such a place. 

The buffalo was also a maker of paths. This animal lives in 
herds, and when the grazing gives out at one place, the whole herd 
moves to another, taking a very straight course. There is no doubt 
that the Indian appropriated some of the buffalo paths for his own 
use. At first sight, it would look as though the buffalo and not the 
Indian was the first road-builder in Bath. The contrary is almost 
certainly the case. The buffalo lived only in open, grassy country, 
and never in the dense forest. The whole Alleghany country is by 
nature an unbroken forest. The large expanses of open ground 
seen by the early explorers were caused by the Indians, so as to de- 
velop an ample supply of large game. So the buffalo herds crept 
farther and farther eastward from their native western plains, and 
as a consequence the mound-building ancestors of the historic Indian 
tribes fell away from their agricultural habits. 

A remnant of a buffalo trail is said to be still visible on a Cow- 
pasture bluff, about a mile northward from the crossing of the Har- 
risonburg and Warm Springs turnpike, and on the east side of the 

The roads of the early period of white settlement were rough 
and ready affairs. With a small population, and but little money 
passing from hand to hand, it was out of the question to build what 


we would now consider a good highway. The pioneer acted quite 
literally on the belief that a straight line is the shortest distance be- 
tween two points. He was more inclined to go directly over a ridge 
than to wind through a hollow, and there contend with side-cutting, 
laurel thickets, and ledges of rock. He had no time for grading, 
and a road through a narrow pass offered too good an opportunity 
for Indians to lay in ambush. But the woods had less underbrush 
than now, and it was comparatively easy to open a tolerable wagon 
way. As for bridges, it was seldom that they were seriously thought 

The earliest roads were used almost wholly as bridle-paths, the 
usual mode of travel being horseback and the packsaddle being the 
usual mode of transporting goods. Nevertheless, there was now and 
then a pioneer, even among the earliest, who had a wagon, and the 
more important roads had to be wide enough to permit a vehicle to 
be used. Wherever the road forked, the colonial law required an 
index to be set up for the information of the traveler. Crude, 
stumpy, rocky, and innocent of grading as the first roads must have 
been, the public opinion of the day required a certain standard of 
excellence. Many a road overseer was presented by the grand jury 
for failing to keep his road in order. 

Two classes of highways received very early attention. A road 
was needed along each river, for it was directly upon the water- 
courses that almost all the early comers located. In these valleys 
were the forts for their protection and the indipensable gristmills. 
Other roads ran over the mountains, or if possible, around them, so 
as to reach the neighboring valleys. The most important of such 
roads were those leading toward the courthouse, which was the 
chief commercial point for a wide radius. 

Thus it is easy to see why the first road leading to the Cowpas- 
ture should come from Staunton, and that it should pass around the 
end of Shenandoah Mountain. That it should strike the Cowpas- 
ture at Fort Lewis is because here was the choicest of the surveys 
taken by the influential Lewis family. So it was ordered by the 
court of Augusta, May 12, 1746, that "a road be laid off and marked 
from the great lick in the Cow Pasture adjoining Col. Lewis Land 
to Andrew Hamilton in the Calf Pasture, and that Andrew Lewis 
and George Lewis mark out and lay off the same and make report to 
the next court." 


Two years later there was an order for a road from Jackson's 
River to the above mentioned land of Colonel Lewis on the Cowpas- 
tur, William Jackson being apponted to lay off the same. A year 
later still, the matter was again taken up, for we find the court re- 
iterating its order, May 18, 1749. William Jackson and James 
Mayse were appointed overseers, the latter taking the portion of 
road "already marked" from the Fort Lewis survey to William Ham- 
ilton's on the Cowpasture. All the tithables on the Cowpasture 
above James Hughart's were ordered to turn out and build the high- 

Meanwhile, the Dickenson settlement was moving for an outlet. 
A petition by Adam Dickenson, for a road from the "lower end of 
the Cowpasture to Carter's mill" on the Calfpasture was rejected in 
February, 1748, but granted a month later. The signers were John 
Cartmill, Hugh Coffey, Adam Dickenson, John Donally, William 
Daugherty, William Gillespie, James Mayse, William Hugh ( ?) 
Ralph Laverty, Alexander Millroy, James McCay, John Mitchell, 
John Moore, Andrew Muldrock, James Scott, James Simpson, and 
James Stuart. These people were living above and below Fort 
Dickenson, and on Stuart's Creek. Whether this road was to go 
through "Painter's Gap" is not clear. We do not find definite 
mention of that passage in road orders until 1762. 

In 1748, also, a view was ordered from Peter Wright's to Adam 
Dickenson's. Wright lived where Covington now stands. An or- 
der of 1751 calls for a road from Wright's mill to the Cowpasture 
near Hughart or Knox. This would bring it up the river to the 
vicinity of the bridge on the Harrisonburg pike. The work was en- 
trusted to Adam Dickenson, David Davis, Peter Wright and Joseph 
Carpenter. On the same date, a road, apparently below the Rath 
line, was ordered from the Cowpasture to Borden's grant. The 
builders designated were James Frame, William Gillespie, Hugh Mc- 
Donald, Robert and James Montgomery, William McMurray, 
James and John Scott, and James Simpson. 

Just a year later, a petition by Cowpasture settlers led to an order 
for another eastward road. This was to go from "Patrick Davis to 
the road leading to Beverly's big meadows." Adam Dickenson was 
to lay off the precincts for the two overseers, John Dickenson and 
James Mayse. 


By this time the dwellers on the Cowpasture were quite well ac- 
commodated with roads. During the next ten years there was a 
slowing up in road-building throughout the Bath area, largely a re- 
sult of the long war with the Indians. In 1762, Ralph Laverty, 
James McCay, and John Dickenson were to view a route from 
Davis's to Dickenson's. The same year, Laverty and James Gay 
were to survey a road through Panther Gap to Dickenson's. It is 
in 1763 that we find the first mention of a public road to Warm 
Springs. The other terminus was Walker's place on the Cowpas- 
ture. The overseers were Thomas Feamster, from Walker's to 
Charles Lewis's, and John Lewis, from the latter point to Warm 

In 1766, William Gillespie and James Beard were overseers for 
a road down the river from Dickenson's to a point eight miles from 
"Pedlar foard." John Dickenson and William Hughart were to 
divide their precincts. A year earlier there was an order for a road 
from Estill's mill (now McClung's) on the Bullpasture to the 
George Lewis place on the Cowpasture. The overseers were Wil- 
liam Black, John Hicklin, and John Estill. But in 1767 a petition 
for a road over a part of this same course was rejected. The 18 
petitioners, all or almost all of whom lived on the Bullpasture, asked 
for a road from John Hicklin's to Feamster's mill. In the same 
year, however, a view was ordered from William Wilson's mill on 
Bolar Run "into the New Laved out Road at the foot of the Bull 
Pastures and thence into the Branch near Feamster's." The peti- 
tioners were Robert Bratton, Robert Barnett, John Davis, David 
Frame, William Given, Ralph and William Laverty, Thomas Lewis, 
Duncan and Alexander McFarland, George^ Skillern, and Stephen 
Wilson. Skillern was a non-resident land-holder. 

We have seen that the first mention of an authorized road to 
Warm Springs is in 1763. But in both English and French maps of 
1755, a road is drawn all the way to the Hot Springs from the mouth 
of the South Branch of the Potomac. Its course inside the Bath 
area begins near the mouth of the Bullpasture. In 1769 a view was 
ordered from "Little Warm (Hot) Springs" to the forks of the road 
on Dunlap Creek. The viewers were Robert Armstrong and John 
Bollar. For a time wagons were unloaded at the east foot of Warm 
Springs Mountain where Brinkley's tavern was afterward built. 


Goods could be moved farther west only by packsaddle. Until after 
1774 there was no wagon route beyond Warm Springs. But in 
1779, and probably as early as 1774, there were mileposts all the 
way to this point from Staunton. 

The Revolution, with its domestic turmoil, high taxation, and 
depreciated paper money, was not favorable to the building of new 
roads or the improvement of old ones. In 1785 Robert McCreery, 
William Dickey, and Patrick Miller were delegated to view a road 
from Feamster's mill to the Bullpasture ford next above John Mont- 
gomery. This would locate the ford at Williamsville. In 1790 a 
road was established from Ralph Laverty's to Thompson's mill by 
way of Windy Cove. To build it the tithables were summoned 
from Thomas Thompson's to Patrick Davis's, and the call included 
those on Jackson's River who lived within convenient reach. 

In 1770 the first county court of Botetourt named and described 
39 road precincts. One of these lay partly in the Bath area, and its 
first overseer was James Montgomery. In 1772 the court of Bote- 
tourt ordered Peter Wright and Robert Armstrong to survey a road 
from Wright's to Sweet Springs. 

We have now given all we know as to the steps taken to build 
public roads within the present limits of Bath and previous to its 
organization. The reader has already noticed that an order by the 
county court was not always promptly followed by actual construc- 

We next mention the road overseers under Augusta, and also 
their precincts, where the latter are described: 

James Mayse — 1748. 

Ralph Laverty— 1753. 

John Dickenson — 1754. 

William Gillespie — 1765— Pedler Ford to Dickenson's. 

John Miller vice Loftus Pullin — 1767 — Estill's to Feamster's. 

John McCreery — 1768 — from Charles Lewis' to where the Dickenson 
road joins the Staunton and Warm Springs road. 

John Hamilton — 1768 — Warm Spi ings to forks of road leading to John 

John Dean — 1769 — same precinct as Hamilton's. 

Charles Donally and John McCreery — 1769. 

John Byrd vice John Lewis — 1773 — Cowpasture to Warm Springs. 

William Black and George Rratton — 1777. 

David Frame — 1778 — from Frame's to William Black's and from Fort 


Lewis to Colonel Mathews' on the Calfpasture. Next year, his precinct 
is "from the forks of the road leading to Warm Springs and Cowpasture, 
and to the new store." 

Stephen Wilson — 1778 — John Wilson's to Warm Springs, and from Wil- 
liam Wilson's to the Bullpasture road over the mountain. 

John Oliver — 1780 — Warm Springs to Cowpasture. 

Edward Thompson — 1780 — Cowpasture to Leonard Bell's. 

Hugh Hicklin — 1780 — from the county (Botetourt) line to the school- 
house on Indian Draft. 

Charles Donally — 1780 — from the above named schoolhouse to Leonard 

John Montgomery — 1781 — William Black's to David Frame's. 

John Rucker — 1781 — Thomas Cartmill's to Samuel Vance's. 

James Young — 1783 — Cloverdale to big hill above Andrew Hamilton's. 

Osborn Hamilton vice Adam Blackman — 1786 — Samuel Vance's to Fort 

Robert Kirk vice John Oliver — 1788 — Warm Springs to Cowpasture. Ja- 
cob Warrick succeeded Kirk. 



JN NEARLY every instance, the parents of the early- 
pioneer were born on the other side of the ocean, landed 
at Philadelphia, and proceeded with little delay to the 
settlements in Augusta. Occasionally, however, they 
lived some years in Pennslyvania. The journey was by wagon. It 
led through the towns of Lancaster and Frederick, across the Poto- 
mac at Shepherd's Ferry, and up the Shenandoah Valley to Staunton 
by what was at first an Indian trail. The route was styled the 
"Pennsylvania Road." This side the Potomac it rather closely fol- 
lowed the course of the present Valley Turnpike. From Staunton 
they continued as best they could over rough paths to the Cowpasture 
and Jackson's River. 

Doctor Walker, writing in 1750, during the infancy of Bath set- 
tlement, makes these entries in his diary: 

"July 9 — Having a Path (from Hot Springs) We rode 20 miles and 
lodged at Captain Jemysons below the Panther Gap. Two of my Company 
went to a Smith to get their Horses Shod. 

"July 11 — Our way mending We travelled 30 miles to Augusta Court 

As a rule, men are slow to adopt a radical change in their manner 
of living. After once choosing his piece of land in the wilderness, 
the pioneer sought to feed, clothe, and house himself as he had done 
in the native land. But Europe was an old country, comparatively 
well peopled. America had only a few wild Indians, and the fron- 
tier looked to the new comer as though it had never been peopled at 
all. So the environment led to some departure from the old mode. 
The modification was not hard to accept, because the plain ways of 
the immigrants made them adaptable to new conditions. For exam- 
ple, they had lived in stone dwellings. It was now more convenient 
to build a log cabin. Indian corn was to them a new food and fodder 
plant, yet it w as accepted at once. The potato, however, was not well 
known in Scotland before 1760. A cradle could be made of peeled 
hickory bark. 


The climate was found to be more sunny than the European, 
but in general temperature not greatly different. The soil was un- 
worn. Yet the small seaports of America were 200 miles away, and 
in the intervening distance there was almost no town population what- 
ever. Nearly every man was a producer and not a consumer 1 hese 
were disadvantages, but the Ulstermen were bent on escaping the 
vexations they had undergone in Ireland. In some instances the 
settler brought with him a considerable stock of hard cash. But in 
the wilderness itself there was no money, and there were few com- 
modities which would bring money. All manufactured goods and 
such necessities as salt and ammunition had to be brought from the 
seacoast and were expensive. The pioneer was thus constrained to be 
as independent as possible of the outside world. 

Where there are handicaps on travel and trade, a frontier com- 
munity tends to lag behind in the march of civilization. In some of 
the more isolated valleys of Appalachian America the people still live 
very much as their grandparents lived a century ago. It has been dif- 
ferent in Bath, because this county lies on a natural line of travel. 
But in the abundance of game there is a novelty. Walker remarks 
that during his summer expedition to Cumberland Gap, his party kill- 
ed 13 buffaloes, 53 bears, and about 150 turkeys, to say nothing of 
other game, and could have killed three times as much if there had 
been the need. Slumbering instincts, inherited from remote ancestors, 
began at once to assert themselves. Some of the newcomers almost 
literally took to the woods. They neglected the soil and made hunt- 
ing a business. The skins they did not need as articles of clothing 
could be sent to the seaports. The bounty on the destructive wolf 
put some additional coin into their pockets. Nearly every pioneer 
seems to have yielded in some degree to this "call of the wild." 

On the other hand, it is a great error to assume that coonskin 
caps and deerskin hunting shirts were generally worn in this region, 
or that the pioneer lived within doors in almost as primitive a fashion 
as the Indian himself. This was true of some persons, but it was not 
the recognized standard of living. The dress suit of the person who 
by the usage of the time was styled either a gentleman or a yeoman 
was more elaborate than in our day. The colors were brighter and 
more diversfiied. We read of green and plum colored broadcloths 
and of bright red fabrics. George Wilson's coat was valued by him- 


self at $13.33, and it would have taken two of his cows to pay for 
it. James Burnside was charged $10 for three beaver hats. Wil- 
liam Jackson lived on the verge of settlement, yet he wore a wig and 
a stock and buckle. In presenting a bill of $1003.52 against his fa- 
ther's estate, John Dickenson mentions broadcloth at $3 a yard, and 
calico at 75 cents. A pair of silver knee buckles is listed at $3.33, a 
lawn handkerchief at $1.25, a silk bonnet at $11.33, a set of silver 
breeches buttons at $3.33, and a pair of men's stockings at 83 cents. 
There was a tailor's bill in favor of James Stuart of $7.67. And 
Adam Dickenson was the founder of the settlement on the lower Cow- 
pasture. Robert Armstrong was a hunter, but wore silver buckles. 
The statute of Andrew Lewis, at Richmond, represents that gener- 
al as attired in hunting shirt and leggings. Such was not his ordinary 
apparel, for he is known to have been particular in the matter of dress. 
His brother, Charles, was equally particular and left a brown suit 
inventoried at $50. 

The person acquiring 100 or more acres in the Augusta colony 
was usually a yeoman, his class constituting the backbone of British 
society. Of the very much smaller class known as gentlemen, there 
were very few among the Augustans, although a prominent man 
would be given that title by courtesy. The gentleman, according to 
the aristocratic meaning of the word, was a man who claimed that 
his ancestors had never been serfs. He had a coat of arms and could 
wear a sword. 

In deeds and other documents it was customary, if the grantor or 
grantee were a yeoman, to state the fact, or to name his occupation. 
This was a means of defining his social standing. Bound white ser- 
vants were numerous in Augusta. Some of these were orphans or of 
illegitimate parentage. In the early days of the colony they were 
chiefly young persons brought from Europe under indenture. To 
pay their passage across the Atlantic they were sold into servitude for 
the average term of five years. At the end of this time the servant 
became free. But while his servitude continued, he was virtually 
a slave. If he ran away and was retaken he was made to serve his 
master an extra period, the length of which was proportioned to the 
cost of recovery. Some of the servants made as good citizens as any 
other people. Some others had a record as petty criminals, or were 
of loose moral character. If, as frequently occurred, the wvman 


servant had bastard children by another man than her master, hei 
term of servitude was lengthened. But immoral behavior was not 
confined to the servant class. 

Until after the Indian war of 1754, negro slaves were very scarce 
in Augusta. 

White male adults were enrolled in militia companies, of which 
the commissioned officers were captains, lieutenants, and ensigns. 
But the frontiersmen were little amenable to restraint, and only the 
officer with a strong inborn power of leadership could control his 
men. The day of general muster was the fourth Tuesday in Sep- 
tember. There was a company muster every three months. 

The "processioning" of lands was a colonial custom. It began in 
1751 and was to be repeated every four years. It consisted in re- 
marking the corners of the surveys, and was done by men appointed 
for that purpose by the vestry. The purpose was to keep the lines from 
being lost sight of, and to prevent unlawful hunting and ranging. 
In 1755, James Hughart processioned in John Dickenson's militia 
company of the Cowpasture, and Stephen Wilson and Joseph Carpen- 
ter in Jeremiah Seely's company on Jackson's River. The following 
document is dated October 12, 1765: 

"As it has pleased your Worships to send an order to nominate Four 
Persons in the Cow Pasture to mark the lines of the Several plantations 
there, we the subscribers hereof have gone from the Forks at Jackson's Riv- 
er upward to Joseph Mayse, and Thomas Feamster and William Black 
from there to the head of the waters. There is many places that there is 
no livers in and others that doth not know their lines. The names of such 
as have f'd their lines are as follows. 

James McCay 
James Scott." 

McCay and Scott marked for themselves and for William Gill- 
espie, John Handley, William McMurray, James Beard, John Dick- 
enson, James Hamilton, Ralph Laverty, John Cartmill, James Hug- 
hart, Robert Stuart, Charles Donally, and Thomas Gillespie. Feams- 
ter and Black marked for themselves and James Mayse, John Mc- 
Creery, James Knox, James Shaw, George Lewis, James Clements, 
Hugh Hicklin, Charles Lewis, John Kinkead, Robert Hall, Boude 
Estill, William Jackson, and James Bodkin. 

About 1768, Samuel Hamilton marked for the following men be- 


tween his house and James Beard's: Andrew Sitlington, John 
Dickenson, William Sprowl, John Donally, Hugh Coffey, Joseph 
Watson, Andrew Muldrock, William Daugherty, John Clendennin, 
and William Mayse. 

The first dwelling houses were small round-log cabins. The roof 
was of long riven shingles held down by weight-poles. The floor 
was of puncheons, or even the natural earth. But larger and better 
houses of hewn logs soon made their appearance. That of William 
Jameson, of the Calf pasture, built in 1752, was 18 by 24 feet in the 
clear, and one and one-half stories high. James Carlile did the work 
for $22.50. Jameson brought suit on the ground that the house was 
badly put together, some of the logs being but four inches thick in- 
stead of the six inches required by the agreement, and that some 
rows of shingles lay 20 inches to the weather. 

In many an instance the settler had learned some handicraft. On 
the frontier he could still follow his trade to some extent, making it 
a side-line to his farming. One man was a weaver, another a mill- 
wright, another a cooper, and still another a carpenter or cabinet- 
maker. A very important man was the blacksmith. He did not 
limit himself to repair work, but was really an iron-worker. He 
manufactured nails, horeshoes, edged tools, and copper-glazed bells. 
He also made farm implements, except such as were wholly of wood. 

The tilled acreage was small, because the pioneer grew little more 
than the supplies consumed on his place. The farming tools were few 
and simple. Almost the only horse implements were the wooden 
plow and the brush harrow. Wagons were scarce at first, but were 
fairly common during the Revolution. Indian corn, unknown in 
the British Isles, was the only staple the pioneer had to learn how to 
grow. The Ulster people were proficient in linen weaving, and the 
flax patch was seen on every frontier farm. Only the well-to-do 
could wear clothes made of imported cloth. Others wore home- 
spun made of flax fiber or wool, or a mixture of the two. Hemp 
was peculiarly a money crop and was encouraged by the Virginia 
government. It was suited to the deep black soil of the river bot- 
toms. The price was $5 a hundredweight, and there was also i 
bounty of $1. Charles Lewis, the champion hemp grower of Bath, 
had a crop of 2374 pounds in 1773. Few planters produced so 
much as 1000 pounds. 


Bath has been a grazing region from the very first, and the pio- 
neer farm was well stocked with horses, sheep, and hogs. The 
smaller domestic animals needed protection from the bears, panthers, 
and wolves. The grown animals were not so large as those of the 
present day. 

The frequency with which the colonial will begins with a long 
pious preamble, would seem to indicate that the pioneers were usu- 
ally attendants on religious service. And yet profanity was very- 
prevalent, not to mention coarseness of speech. Gambling was also 
common. Complaint was made of one Bath magistrate for visiting 
a gaming house and violating his official duty by failing to report it. 

The pioneers of this county were Presbyterians. Their first 
minister was John Craig, who preached on the Cowpasture at least 
as early as 1749. He was followed by Alexander Craighead, who 
came to Augusta in 1752 and two years later purchased a part of 
the Dickenson homestead. Whether he lived here or on the farm 
he owned in the Borden grant, we do not know. At this time the 
Church of England was also the established church in Virginia. No 
one except a minister of that communion might marry a couple, and 
there was no resident clergyman in Augusta until 1760. The Indian 
war broke out shortly after Craighead's arrival. He thought it too 
great a hardship for the frontier people to bear the brunt of this 
bitter conflict, and at the same time be subject to religious disabilities. 
In 1755 he went to North Carolina, where the laws were more lib- 
eral. In that colony he was the only Presbyterian minister between 
the Yadkin and the Catawba. Craigheard was followed by so many 
of his congregation on the Cowpasture that for a while it was almost 
broken up. One effect of the Indian war was greatly to loosen the 
application of the laws against dissenters, and one result of American 
independence was full religious liberty in Virginia. It may be open 
to question whether Craighead chose the better course in quitting his 
field and not helping in the fight for toleration. But in North Carolina, 
where he died in 1768, he did good service in preparing his flock for 
the inevitable conflict with England. It was his adopted county — 
Mecklenberg — that was a year ahead of the Continental Congress in 
declaring for the independence of America. 

Windy Cove is the mother church of all the Presbyterian organi- 
zations in Greater Bath. The original church building, a little 



round-log structure with a large fireplace, stood on Craighhead's 
farm. According to the memorial slab that marks the spot, it was 
erected in 1760. This is an error. At that date the Indian war 
had not ceased, there was no resident minister, and the congregation 
was nearly broken up because of the exodus to North Carolina. The 
real date is probably not later than 1752. The church seems to have 
been burned by the Indians between 1753 and 1763. About 1756, 
Laverty and Millroy employed William Gillespie to reroof the 
church for $10, but they brought suit on the ground that his work 
did not sufficiently turn the rain and snow. A second and smaller 
church was built about 1766 near the site of the present Windy Cove. 
This was succeeded by a church and a session house of hewed logs, 
and these in 1837 by the present brick buildings. The second resi- 
dent minister was John Montgomery. His ministry was from 1789 
to 1804. 

The first of the offshoots from Windy Cove used as a house of 
worship was a log building on the Dean homestead on Jackson's 
River. This gave place to a church at Warm Springs. 

The first elders of Windy Cove were William Gillespie, John 
Sitlington, Nathaniel Crawford, and Joseph Surber. 

The names given below are those of the communicants at Windy 
Cove in 1833 : 

Avis, Margaret 
Bell, Thomas A. 
Bell, Joseph W. G. 
Bratton, Andrew 
Bratton, John 
Bratton, Lewis 
Bratton, Mary, Sr. 
Bratton, Mary, Jr. 
Bratton, Mary 
Bratton, Rebecca 
Burger, Martha 
Carlile, Jane 
Crawford, Martha 
(Vawiord, Mary 
Crawford, Samuel 
Crawford, William 
Criser, Mary 
Dickenson, Adam, Jr. 
Dickenson, Charlotte 

Dickenson, Emhy 
Dickenson, Harriet 
Dickenson, John 0. 
Dickenson, Samuel 
Feamster, Margaret 
Francisco, Elizabeth 
Francisco, George 
Frasier, James 
Frasier, Jane G. 
Frasier, Martha 
Frasier, Martha G. 
Gillespie, Peggy 
Gilliland, Stephen 
Hansbarger, Rebecca 
Hughart, Ervin 
Hughart, James 
Hughart, Martha 
Hughart, Samuel 

Jameson, Rachel 
Kelso, Hugh 
Kelso, John 
Lyle, Isabella 
Lyle, James 
McCland, Andrew 
McCland, Frances 
McClung, John 
McClung, Rachel 
McClung, Sarah 
McDannald, Adam 
McDannald, Harriett 
McDannald, Hugh 
VlcDannald, John 
McDannald, Rebecca 
Moore, Jane 
Payne, Ann 
Porter, Adam 

Hutchinson, Harriet K. Porter, Martha 


Porter, Mary Sitlington, Thomas Walters, Benijah 

Porter, Rachel Sloan, Mary Withrow, Eliza 

Porter, Rebecca Surber, Jane Woods, Edward 

Ryne, Martha Surber, Levi Woods, , Mrs. 

Sitlington, Mary (1) Surber, Mary Mingo (negro) 

Sitlington, Mary (2) Surber , Mrs. Bridget (negro) 

Sitlington, Nancy Williams, Elisha, Jr. 

The ruling element in colonial Virginia held that education is 
a private and not a public interest, and that schooling is to be pur- 
chased like clothing or groceries. This is why the subject has only 
incidental mention in the public records. So far as we know, the 
first schoolhouse in the Bath area stood on Indian Draft, in or near 
the basin of Stuart's Creek. It is mentioned in 1779. But ever 
since the Reformation came to Scotland, the Scotch people have been 
noted for their zeal in the cause of general education. The ability 
to read and write was almost universal among the pioneers of Bath. 
We have found scores of their signatures, often written in a plain, 
easy hand. 

The settlers of Augusta were very much given to litigation. The 
number of their lawsuits, during the 30 years prior to the Revolution, 
runs into the thousands. The settlers of Bath seem to have fur- 
nished their full proporton. Some persons were exceedingly con- 
tentious and were almost constantly in court for years. Most of the 
suits were for debt. Not a few were for assault and battery. Many 
others were for slander. If a man gave a note, performed a piece 
of work, or ran up a bill at a store, the outcome was commonly a 
lawsuit, and sometimes it dragged through court after court for a 
number of years. It sometimes looks as though every man was not 
only all the while in debt, but was holding notes against other per- 
sons. It was a common thing for a person to claim damages for 
being called a thief. It was even more common for both men and 
women to complain of having immoral behavior alleged against them. 
Some of these charges are gross in the extreme, and are set forth in 
the bills of complaint with a frankness that is astonishing. It is evi- 
dent that the people of old Augusta knew perfectly well how to call 
a spade a spade. 

The pioneers were not meek in submitting to any human author- 
ity. The justices of the county court were sometimes "damned" 
or otherwise insulted while sitting on the bench. In 1754, a woman 


called William Wilson a rogue, and said that on his "coming off 
the bench she would give it to him with the devil." At another 
time, three soldiers came into the court-room and insulted the jus- 
tices. The court was repeatedly disturbed by rioting in the court- 
yard or by ball playing. As for the constables they were not to be 
envied in attempting to discharge their duty. Sometimes they could 
not serve a writ "by reason of a fresh." One of them says he was 
"kept off by force of arms." Another says his writ was "not exe- 
cuted case of by a hay fork." A third says, "the fellow gave me 
neel play." A writ against two settlers near Fort Dickenson was 
not executed in 1758 "for fear of the Indians." 

Micheal Harper complained that three of the Bath settlers burn- 
ed his house and 500 rails and committed other "enormities." John 
Bodkin was granted two pounds damages for being accused of steal- 
ing a filley. Robert Duffield complained of a certain very conten- 
tious and rather pugilistic settler that the said person killed a black 
mare belonging to him. A woman on Jackson's River was accused by 
another woman of stealing a cheese, but was granted only one penny 
damages. A man on the Cowpasture sued Joseph Mayse for speak- 
ing of him as a hog thief. In this suit a pioneer of Stuart's Creek 
deposed that he saw the plaintiff drivng away seven "hoggs" from 
the plantation of Colonel Lewis and supposed them to belong to 
Mayse. William Wilson sued two men for using several nanels of 
his fence to catch a horse belonging to one of them ; also for burning 
some of the fencing, whereby eight acres of rye and fifteen of good 
timothy were ruined. This was in 1757, during the Indian war, and 
Wilson lost the suit. William Armstrong sued a neighbor for coming 
at him with "clubs, swords, staves, knives, feet, hands, and sticks." 
whereby he was knocked senseless and his arm broken. The bill 
fails to state how many hands and fingers the assailant possessed. 

During the Revolution the mines of Wythe county were an im- 
portant source of bullets and shot. Attempts to manufacture powder 
were begun at an early day in the Alleghany region, and were con- 
tinued until until near the middle of the last century. The first 
powder mill we hear of in Greater Bath was at Fort Mann. Anoth- 
er, on Blue Spring Run in Rich Patch Mountain, is spoken of in 1810. 

The first drowning in the Cowpasture that we hear of was that 
of Garret Phclnn, in 1782. The inquest was held at David Frame's. 


The coroner's jury consisted of Charles Cameron, James Henry, 
Patrick Miller, Andrew Sitlington, Robert McCreery, Alexander 
Black, William Black, David Frame, Jermiah Frame, Matthias Ben- 
son, and Sampson Wilson. Wilson was from the Doe Hill neigh- 

Thomas Feamster "bred a meeting" in 1757 and was its spokes- 
man. He set forth his refusal to muster, saying Captain George 
Wilson had given to women and children provisions that belonged 
to the soldiers. He said Wilson's character would become as well 
known a it was in Pennsylvania. Wilson brought suit for slander 
and won. One pioneer of the Calfpasture sued another for saying he 
had stolen two shirts from the neighbor and had been to see a conjuror 
about it. It was easily within the recollection of the people then living 
that a woman had been ducked in Princess Anne County for witch- 

Previous to the French and Indian war small printed forms were 
used for writs. From then until the Revolution legal papers were 
written out by hand, usually in a neat, legible manner. Very small 
pieces of paper were used, and the lines of writing were near to- 
gether. This was because of the high cost of paper. The ink was 
very good and the writing is easily read to-day. None but quill 
pens were known or used, and unlike steel pens their action is not 

The large river farms were really plantations, and were spoken 
of as such. And as these farms took in nearly all the prime tillable 
land in Bath, the structure of society was rather aristocratic for a 
mountain region. So often are the planters mentioned as officers of 
the militia, that one is sometimes inclined to wonder who were the 

Money was computed, as in England, in pounds, shillings, and 
pence. But on this side of the Atlantic, these words applied to val- 
ues and not to coins. The Virginia pound was worth almost one- 
third less than the pound sterling, and for this reason English money 
did not circulate in the colony. In Virginia currency, the pound was 
worth $3.33, the shilling 16 2-3 cents, and the penny a little more 
than 1 and 1-3 cents. The hard money in actual use came from the 
West Indies, and was of Spanish, French, and Portuguese mintage. 
Thus we read frequently of the pistole, the doubloon, and the "loo- 


dore," which were gold coins worth, respectively, $3.92, $5.00, and 
$3.96. It was thus that the Americans became acquainted with the 
"piece of eight," or Mexican dollar. The former name was because 
it was divided into eight reals, the real being a silver coin of the 
value of nine pence, or 12H cents. The earliest mention of the dol- 
lar by name is in 1752, when Adam Dickenson thus acknowledges 
a payment on a note: "Rec'd of the within 28 dollars." 

"Since the gold and silver coins that passed from hand to hand 
were of so varied a character, it was tedious and inconvenient to turn 
their values into Virginia money. They were computed by weight, 
and this is why money scales are often mentioned in inventories of 
personal property. The silver coins were legal tender at the rate 
of 3 3 A pence per penny-weight, or $1.04 per ounce. Copper pennies 
were coined for Virginia in 1733. Paper money of colonial issue be- 
gan to appear in 1755. The ten pound bill was only 2^2 by 3 inches 
in size, was crudely engraved, and was numbered and signed with a 
common pen. The bill pictured in this book was once held by 
William Blanton, who asked Charles Lewis to change it for him 
or get it changed. That planter could not change it himself, and was 
holding it until an opportunity arrived, when he showed it to Adam 
Bovvyer, the sheriff. Bowyer pronounced it counterfeit, and Lewis 
gave back the bill to Blanton, who brought suit against the man 
who had passed it on him. 

When a nominal money consideration was written into a legal 
document, the sum mentioned is usually five shillings. Five per cent 
was the legal rate of interest. There were no banks, and men who 
had considerable money on hand were accustomed to hide it. Peter 
W right hid some money on Peter's Mountain in so secure a manner 
that it was not found until a comparatively recent day. 

Most of the early settlers of Bath came through Philadelphia, and 
their merchants often purchased their goods in that city. Thus we 
can understand the very frequent mention of Pennsylvania money, in 
which the pound was worth only $2.50. The fact that the Mexican 
dollar, was worth six shillings in Virginia or New England money, 
and eight shillings in the money of the Middle Colonies, is the 
leading reason why the dollar, already a well-known coin, became 
the unit of the new Federal currency. Under the names of "levy" 
and "fip," the real and half-real (12K- and 6% cents) were legal ten- 
der in this country until near the time of the civil war. 


Certain of the Augusta court records, particularly those relating 
to suits for debt, throw much light on values in the colonial era. 
The purchasing power of the dollar was several times greater than 
it is now. This fact helps to explain why the prices of land and 
livestock seem so very low. On the other hand, some articles were 
very expensive; relatively more so than they are now. Whether, on 
the whole, living was easier than with us can be judged fairly well 
by studying the values mentioned in the paragraphs below. Most of 
these have been taken from the law documents which concern the 
pioneers of Greater Bath. 

What land sold for in various years may be found in Chapter III. 
As to land rent, we find two instances. A farm of 517 acres on 
Back Creek rented three years for $6.46. James Gay was to pay 
John Warwick four pounds yearly for three years for 149 acres. A 
mare could be had for $15, although an extra good horse might come 
as high as $40. Andrew Lockridge paid $6.17 for a cow, but Valen- 
tine Coyle furnished one for $3.58 to Patrick Martin's militia com- 
pany. Rachel Burnside, perhaps through sheer necessity, sold two 
cows and a yearling for $10. We find mention of a hog at $2.1 1, and 
a sheep at $1.14, although one animal of either sort could ordinarily 
be had at rather less than one dollar. The one mention of a goose 
is at 42 cents. Common labor ran from 33 to 50 cents a day, al- 
though corn could be gathered and husked for 25 cents, and 33 cents 
would command the services of a person who could tend store, and 
post books. James Bourland charged but 50 cents a day for him- 
self, wagon and two horses. But George Lewis, working at a 
somewhat later date at Warm Springs, charged $1.08 for himself 
and three horses. Jacob Marlin, a trapper, charged $3.75 for the 
use of a horse two months. A horse could be kept one week for a 
shilling, but Michael Harper was charged $5.33 for the wintering 
of a single horse. Rails could be split for 37^4 cents a thousand, al- 
though selling as high as $5. A blacksmith would make a mattock 
for 67 cents. A carpenter charged William Dean 83 cents for mak- 
ing a churn, $2.50 for laying his barn floor, $6.67 for covering his 
house, and $10 for covering his barn. A bedstead could be made for 
$1.25, a loom for $5, and a coffin for $2.17. Two pounds — $6.67 — 
would build one of the big stone chimneys of that day, and four 
pounds would build a log dwelling. David Kincaid's house in 1752 


cost him $30. We find $7.50 charged for making a spring house. 
and only 83 cents for a lime kiln. $10 would pay for a year's 
schooling. Aminta Usher, servant to Loftus Pullin, worked for $20 
a year. 

Wheat varied little from 50 cents a bushel and oats 33 cents. 
Rye was quoted at 25 to 42 cents, corn at 24 to 38 cents, and pota- 
toes 20 cents. Even in the Greenbrier settlement of 1762, corn com- 
manded 33 cents. Flour by the barrel ran all the way from $3.25 
to $8.33. Butter was worth five to eight cents a pound. Beef and 
mutton averaged hardly more than two cents a pound, although there 
is an instance where we find 400 pounds of bear meat, bacon, and 
venison billed at $25. In 1749, Joseph Mayse sold a "half buflar" 
for $1.25. Half a bear carcass is mentioned at 83 cents, and a 
whole deer at 36 cents. A month's board bill could be satisfied for 
$3. All condiments were brought from the seaports. It was here 
that the pioneer "caught it in the neck." Salt was 67 cents a quart 
in 1745. As late as 1763 coarse salt commanded $2 a bushel, and 
it cost 83 cents to bring it from Richmond. Tea was $1.56 a pound 
and coffee $1. Bottled honey was 31 cents. Pepper was 75 cents a 
pound and alspice 54 cents. Nutmeg was 17 cents an ounce and cin- 
namon 58 cents. As to sugar, we are sometimes in doubt whether 
maple or cane sugar is meant. White loaf sugar from the West 
Indies was sometimes 25 cents a pound. Brown cane sugar was 
much cheaper. 

Clothing was costly. Homemade linen could be woven for six 
cents a yard, but Irish linen cost $1.08 a yard, ribbon 17 cents, flannel 
41 cents, sheeting $1.25, and velvet $3.33. A handkerchief of cotton 
or linen cost from 25 to 33 cents, while one of silk cost 75 cents. 
Men's stockings, which came above the knee and were there secured 
under the ends of the trousers with a buckle, cost 80 to 90 cents. 
Worsted hose for women was 50 cents and plaid hose 33 cents. 
Headgear was high or low according to the means of the wearer. 
A woman's hat is mentioned at $5 and a boy's at 83 cents. But a 
cheap felt hat could he purchased for 33 cents. Leggins were $1.04, 
pumps $2, and men's fine shoes $1.41. James Carlile's blue broad- 
cloth coat cost him $S.42. Gloves are listed at 58 cents, a necklace 
at 33, and a woman's fan at 2S. A pair of steel buckles for shoes or 
knees cost 2S cents, hut the man of fashion insisted on silver for both 


buttons and buckles, and he had his name put on the buttons. Com- 
mon -buttons were 42 cents a dozen, silk garters were 42 cents a pair, 
and thread was half a shilling to a shilling an ounce. Leather 
breeches, very generally worn by laboring men, are priced at $3.17 a 
pair. There were fabrics called osnaburg, callimanco, and none-so- 

The hunter had to be a good marksman, when he paid 56 cents 
a pound for powder and 21 cents for lead, and turned in beaver skins 
at 83 cents each. His gunflints and fishhooks cost him about one cent 
apiece. "Sang digging" was a rather profitable pursuit. In 1755 
a Carlile promised 30 pounds of ginseng at Thomas Hicklin's house, 
and it was valued at $20. Eight years later we find the root quoted 
at a dollar a pound. 

During the Revolution the mines of Wythe county were an im- 
portant source of bullets and shot. Attempts to manufacture powder 
were begun at an early day in the Alleghany region, and were con- 
tinued until near the middle of the last century. The first powder 
mill we hear of in Greater Bath was at Fort Mann. Another, on 
Blue Spring Run in Rich Patch Mountain, is spoken of in 1819. 

Nails were sometimes sold by count, ten-penny nails coming as 
high as $1.50 a thousand. A bell and collar cost $1.25 and a horse- 
shoe one shilling. A woman gave 11 cents for a thimble, six cents 
a dozen for her needles, and 17 cents for a paper of pins. The doctor 
was charged 33 cents a pound for his casteel soap, 67 cents an ounce 
for his calomel, and 33 cents for a roll of court plaster. 

In their account with John and George Francisco, the Mathews 
brothers name the following items: Chalk per pound, $1 ; ten-penny 
nails per pound, 21 cents; sheeting, 35 cents a yard; one frying pan, 

Some miscellaneous values are shown in the list below: 

Bible $1.00 Candles, per pound $ .08 

Testament 33 Knives and forks, per dozen.. 1.56 

Scythe 1.00 Brass knife and fork 21 

Iron pot 1.17 Brimstone, per pound 17 

Iron candlestick 11 Indigo, per ounce 17 

Handsaw file 22 Tablecloth 1.33 

Steelyards 2.33 Packsaddle 50 

Whip 1.41 Pocketbook 83 

Tallow, per pound 02 Basin 37^2 


Comb $1-33 Blanket $2.67 

Ivory Comb 42 Making a jacket 1.00 

Horn Comb 21 Gloves 58 

Rye Brandy, per gallon 33 Tobacco 10 to .14 

China bowl 33 Allspice, per pound 1.08 

To give some idea of prices at the leading seaport of America, we 
take the following items from the bills rendered in 1759 and 1760 
by two merchants of Philadelphia against two merchants of Staun- 

Tumblers, per dozen $3.33 Worsted Hose $.42 

Glasses, per dozen 1.00 Sleeve buttons, per dozen 09 

Flannel 33 Salt, per bushel 42 

Needles, per thousand 1.12 Bar iron, per pound 04 

China bowl 33 Bar lead, per pound 05 3-5 

Linen Handkerchief 14 Brown sugar 10 

Silk Handkerchief 44 White sugar 25 

Sheeting 48 

The thinness of population, the fewness of towns, the slowness 
of travel, and the comparative absence of newspapers and a real post- 
al service, caused the life of the community to move at a slow pace. 
So late as 1775, there were but two newspapers and 15 postoffices in 
all Virginia. Postage was so high that many letters were sent by private 
persons. There were no envelopes, and postmasters read the letters 
just as gossip now claims that country postmasters are said to read 
the postal cards. Until 1755, there was no regular service with the 
British Isles, and if a letter weighed one ounce it cost a dollar to get 
it delivered there. 

The pioneers had little of our modern hurry, but were awake to 
what was taking place in their own neighborhoods. On matters re- 
lating to the colony in general, they were slow to move unless aroused 
by their better informed leaders. As to anything like a national feel- 
ing between the populations of the several colonies, there was nothing 
worthy of the name. 

A journal kept in 1740 by two Moravian missionaries gives us 
a glimpse into the valleys of Bath after some four years of settle- 
ment. These men were traveling afoot from Pennsylvania to the 
Dunkard settlement on New River, ministering as they went along 
to the spiritual needs of the pioneers of German birth. They came by 
wav of the South Fork, and at the head of that river they reached 


on the night of November 13th — November 24th, New Style — an 
"English Cabin," probably that of Hercules Wilson. Here they warm- 
ed themselves by a fire on the hearth and slept on bearskins spread on 
the floor. Like all the settlers this family had bear meat, and like 
some of them it had no bread. But on the morning of that day a 
German woman had given the missionaries some bread and cheese. 
These eatables they shared with their entertainers. 

Next day, after frequent fordings of the Cowpasture, they came 
either to the Black or the Jackson farm and lodged there for the 
night. Their host was suspicious and not very willing, but in the 
morning he was induced to put them over the Bullpasture on his horse, 
the waters being high. They soon fell in with George Lewis, who 
was traveling on horseback in the same direction they were going. 
This man set them across the river at 12 fords. They seem to have 
parted with him when they left the vicinity of the river and began 
climbing Warm Springs Mountain. A rain began to fall, and it was 
dusk when they reached the summit. They were not only wet, but 
were weary with a hard day's walk. They found an empty hut, 
which must have stood near the present tollgate. They had nothing 
for a supper, but made a fire and dried their clothes. In the morn- 
ing they hurried down the mountain into Warm Springs Valley, and 
at the first house they had a breakfast of hominy and buttermilk. 
They speak of the man as a good Presbyterian, but do not give his 
name. He was probably James Ward. The missionaries do not say 
a word about the thermal waters. They were in a hurry to get on. 
They could not speak English fluently, and along this part of the way 
there were no German settlers. Jackson's River was crossed by 
swimming and with some difficulty. They speak of "mountains all 
around." At the close of this day, after crossing Dunlap Creek, they 
reached a house, perhaps that of Peter Wright. Here they again 
slept on bearskins, like the rest of the family. While crossing a 
mountain on their way to Craig's Creek, they heard an "awful howl- 
ing of wolves." 

These Moravians found that the people they met were living like 
savages, wearing deerskin clothes, and making hunting their chief 
pursuit. The style of living among the settlers is mentioned as poor 
in the extreme. But this was in the very infancy of the settlement 
of Bath, and was during the "wild and wolly" stage of its evolution. 


Doctor Thomas Walker, in his diary for July, 1750, says the 
settlers on Jackson's River "are very hospitable and would be better 
able to support themselves, were it not for the great number of In- 
dian warriors that frequently take what they want from them, much 
to their prejudice." 

At the date of the Dunmore war, and still more so after the 
close of the Revolution, there was a comparative degree of prosper- 
ity and comfort. Staunton, a village of some 20 houses in 1753, grew 
into a sizable place and had its third courthouse. To Richmond, 
which did not become the state capital till 1779, produce was wagoned 
from the Augusta settlements. After 1783, the Indian peril was a 
thing of the past. But in the features of local government there was 
little change, outside of the abolition of the vestry. This came with 
the disestablishment of the Church of England near the close of the 
war for Independence. 





NTIL 1748, and theoretically until 1763, the Alleghany 
Front was the western frontier of Virginia. Beyond 
was the Indian country, claimed by the English and 
the French, as well as by the natives. The conflict known 
in American history as the French and Indian war broke out in 1754. 
It was a final struggle between England and France for control in the 
Western Continent, and victory declared for the former. Aside 
from the Iroquois of New York, nearly all the Indian tribes aided 
the French. They resumed the strife on their own account in the 
episode known as the war with Pontiac's confederacy. A general 
peace did not come until 1764. 

No Indians were living in Bath when the white settlers appear- 
ed, although hunting parties visited these valleys in the fall months. 
They called at the cabins of the white people and learned to express 
themselves in the English tongue. By reason of this intercourse they 
became very familiar with words of insult and profanity. 

The points of view of the two races were very divergent. The 
pioneer despised the native as a heathen, and showed little tact or pa- 
tience in dealing with him. Because the red man did not cultivate the 
ground, except to a slight extent, the white man could not see that 
his claim to the country was worthy of any serious consideration. He 
did not conceal his desire that the Indian should get entirely out of 
his way, so that he might have the whole country for himself. On 
the other hand, the Indian did not like the British-American. His 
people were very few in number, while the whites were a host. The 
powerful and ceaseless push of the latter was driving him farther and 
farther away from the hunting grounds where his own people had 
followed the chase for generations. There was sentiment in the In- 
dian, and those hunting grounds were sacred in his eyes. He was 
proud as well as free. He did not give up the hopeless struggle with- 
out a long and gallant fight, during which he inflicted far heavier 
losses than he received. He was cruel in war, after the manner of 
all barbarians, yet the frontiersman was not far behind him. 


There were some curious exceptions to the general rule. "Mad 
Anthony," for whom Anthony's Creek is named, was an Indian 
hunter who used to visit Fort Young and tell of the plots of his 
race. Quite as a matter of course, he was distrusted by both pale- 
face and redskin. White men, taken captive in boyhood, could only 
with much difficulty he weaned from the life of the forest, and 
sometimes they fought against their own color. 

The shamefuL defeat of General Braddock in July, 1755, ex- 
posed the whole inland frontier to the vengeance of the native. Wash- 
ington was put in charge of the Valley of Virginia and made every 
effort to defend it. His position was a very trying one. With only 
a few hundred militia, untrained, insubordinate, and poorly equip- 
ped, he was expected to defend a line 300 miles long. He was under 
the authority of a royal governor who was stingy, meddlesome, and 
inefficient, and was also hampered by a legislature that was not only 
meddlesome but at times incompetent and unfriendly. 

Many of the people on the fronter did not think that the colonial 
government rose to its duty, and they flocked into the upland districts 
of the Carolinas. There were some others who did not leave the 
colony, but sought places of greater safety. Those who remained 
at their homes were in almost constant danger except in the winter 
season. Rangers, who were known as Indian spies, watched the 
trails and the mountain passes. They were forbidden to make fires 
to warm themselves, lest the smoke might give notice to some lurking 
enemy. A horseman, speeding over the bridlepaths, and shouting 
"Indian sign" to every person he met, caused the families along his 
route to make a hurried flight to the nearest stockade or blockhouse. 
There they "forted" during the times of special danger. Fierce 
dogs, trained to recognize the odor of the Indian, were an additional 
means of protection. 

And yet the pioneers were wilfully careless. While serving as 
militia they could not be counted upon to obey their officers or serve 
out their terms. They disliked to be cooped up in the stockades. At 
such times they not only took imprudent risks, but they were negli- 
gent in sentinel duty. When Washington passed through the Bath 
area on a tour of inspection, not one of the forts he visited was in a 
proper condition for defense. There was not one which could not 
have been surprised with ease. He also writes that the members of 


his escort conducted themselves in a most foolhardy manner. It is 
not pleasant to learn of these shortcomings of our ancestors, and to 
see that their hardships were due in a considerable degree to their 
own fault. While in service the militiaman received one shilling a 

The leading stronghold on the Cowpasture was Fort Dickenson. 
It stood in the midst of the river-bottom, a half mile north of Nim- 
rod Hall and to the west of the stream. There is nothing to mark 
the exact site. Close to where is now an ancient brick house, a mile 
north of Fassifern on Jackson's River, was Fort Dinwiddie, the south- 
ern limit of Washington's tour of observation in the fall of 1755. 
Like Fort Dickenson, it stood on the second bottom and near a water 
supply. Near the Clover Creek mill on the Bullpasture stood Fort 
George, in the midst of a meadow that has never been plowed, and 
hence the lines of stockade and covered way may easily be traced. 
Near the site of the iron furnace at Covington was Fort Young, 
built in 1756 according to specifications given by Washington. A 
council of war held in the same year speaks of Fort Breckenridge 
and Fort Christian, the former 16 miles from Fort Dickenson, and 
the latter 15 miles from Fort Dinwiddie. They were small stock- 
ades and both stood on Jackson's River. It is probable that Fort 
Christian was but another name for Fort Mann, which stood at the 
mouth of Falling Springs Run. 

There were also fortified houses capable of repelling an ordinary 
attack. Thomas Feamster, who lived a mile south of Williams- 
ville, hit upon an ingenious device. His house stood near Meadow 
Lake, a pool more than an acre in extent. In the midst of this water 
he built a blockhouse supported on piles, some of which remained 
visible many years. The blockhouse was approached by a foot-bridge, 
the planks being detachable. 

In a letter of September 23, 1755, Robert McClenachan relates 
that Captain Dickenson had had a "scrimmage" with nine Indians, 
killing one of them and losing one of his own men. Two Cherokee 
boys were released and taken to Fort Dinwiddie to remain there until 
the governor could make known his wish as to what should be done 
with them. The Cherokees were at this time allies of the English. 
The writer does not say where the skirmish occurred, and it probably 
happened on the Greenbrier. 


A council of war held at Staunton, July 27, 1756, decided in fa- 
vor of placing a garrison of 30 men at Miller's Fort, and 60 at Fort 
Dinwiddie. Miller's Fort stood 15 miles up Jackson's River from 
Fort Dinwiddie. Forts Breckenridge and Dinwiddie, the former 13 
miles from Dinwiddie and 13 from Dickenson, were deemed properly 
protected by the men already there. 

Of the Indian raids into Bath, the earliest we can locate took 
place near the middle of September, 1756. Within or very near the 
present county limits, and mainly along Jackson's River, nine men, 
one woman, and three children were killed, and two men were 
wounded. Among the slain were Ensign Humphrey Madison, John 
Byrd, Nicholas Carpenter, James Mayse, and James Montgomery. 
Joseph Carpenter, David Galloway, and a Mrs. McConnell were 
captured, but got away. Mrs. Byrd, Mrs. George Kincaid, Mrs. 
Persinger, and 25 boys and girls were taken to the Indian towns in 
Ohio. Among the children were six Byrds, five Carpenters, and two 

During this raid occurred the first attack on Fort Dickenson. 
Captain Dickenson was absent at a general muster. When Wash- 
ington came along, about seven weeks later, he remarks that the 
stockade was in need of improvement. He also remarks that at the 
time of the attack, the Indians crept close to the enclosure without 
being discovered and captured several children. 

A council of war the same year advised stationing 250 men at 
Fort Dickenson, 100 at Fort Dinwiddie, and 40 at each of the other 
forts, Breckenridge and Christian. The only way to have secured 
garrisons of such strength was to bring soldiers from east of the Blue 

In the summer of 1757 Fort Dickenson was invested a second 
time. Again Dickenson was absent, and again there was negligence 
on the part of the defenders. The approach of the Indians was first 
known by seeing the cattle of John McClung running toward the 
fort with arrows sticking in their backs. Several boys had gone out- 
side the stockade to gather wild plums and they were captured. Among 
them was Arthur Campbell, a militiaman of 15 years who later on 
became prominent in the annals of southwest Virginia. A girl named 
Krwin moulded bullets for the men in the fort. Governor Dinwid- 
die, always swift to find fault, scolded Dickenson for being away and 
ordered Major Andrew Lewis to garrison the post with 70 men. 


Between the middle of May and the end of September of this 
year, we are told of six more men who lost their lives. In this num- 
ber were Sergeant Henry at Fort Dinwiddie, and John Moore and 
James Stuart on the Cowpasture. Stuart may have been killed in 
the second attack on Fort Dinwiddie. James Allen and one Swoope 
were wounded on Jackson's River. This season, 11 captives were 
carried away. Among them were James McClung, James Stuart, 
Jr., Mrs. Moore and her children, and two Cartmill children. 

The affair at Fort Dinwiddie was perhaps the same for which 
John Brown put in a claim. He was helping to convoy some pro- 
visions to the fort and the guard was attacked. 

In April, 1758, there was still another raid into the valley of 
the Cowpasture. A man was killed and a boy and a girl were cap- 
tured. All three of these were servants. During this incursion the 
Indians are reported as having carried away John and William Mc- 
Creery. This statement is probably incorrect. One Kephart was a 
tenant on the McCreery plantation and lost two sons by capture. 
They made their escape, however. 

Fort Duquense fell in 1759. The Indians were now deprived of 
French support and their raids soon came to a pause. These were 
not confined to the settlements west of Shenandoah Mountain. The 
northern and middle portions of the Shenandoah Valley were severe- 
ly scourged. Staunton and its neighborhood fared better, the natives 
not coming within five miles of that place. But for some cause the 
Indians bore a deep grudge against the settlement on Kerr's Creek. 
Their first foray into that valley seems to have taken place in Octob- 
er, 1759. The assailants came from the direction of Sweet Springs. 
They are said to have killed 12 persons and carried away 13. With 
wonderful energy Charles Lewis raised in one night a pursuing party 
of 150 men, Captain Dickenson heading one of the three companies. 
The foe was overtaken on Straight Fork, west of the Crabbottom in 
Highland County. A surprise was intended, but through a mis- 
chance it was far from complete, and the Indians escaped wth a loss 
stated at 20 of their warriors, though it was probably less. The 
booty they were carrying away was retaken. Thomas Young was 
killed in this fight and Captain Dickenson was wounded. 

The Pontiac war suddenly burst out in June, 1763. It had been 
planned with great secrecy by the red men and was designed as a 


simultaneous attack along the whole western frontier. To Corn- 
stalk, a Shawnee chieftain of unusual ability, was assigned the task 
of dealing a heavy blow on the Greenbrier and the settlements to 
the southeast. With a strong band he fell upon the unsuspecting 
Greenbrier settlements, and in a day or two he had blotted them out. 
One Conrad Yoakum outdistanced the Indians in their progress to 
Jackson's River, and gave warning to the people around Fort Mann. 
The settlers could scarcely credit the report, yet they gathered into 
the blockhouse and sent a courier to Fort Young, 10 miles down the 
river. Captains Moffett and Phillips set out with 60 men to their 
relief. The scouts kept cautiously along the river-bank the entire 
distance. But when the main body reached the horseshoe peninsula 
immediately below the fort, they thought to gain time by marching 
arcoss the neck. As a result of their imprudence they fell into an 
ambuscade and lost 15 of their number, the survivors retreating. 
This action seems to have taken place July 16th. 

The fort was not taken, but the Shawnees followed up their vic- 
tory over the relief party by going down Jackson's River and then 
up the Cowpasture. They were seen near Fort Young and an ex- 
press rode at full speed to William Daugherty's. That pioneer was 
away from home, but his wife mounted the only horse in the stable and 
raced up the valley, warning the settlers as she galloped along. Her 
house was burned but we are told that no scalps were then taken on 
the Cowpasture. If so, it was during some previous raid that a man 
was shot while standing on a bluff near the Blowing Cave. His 
body fell into the river. 

The Indian army now divided, one part turning homeward, and 
the other crossing Mill Mountain to Kerr's Creek, where, only two 
days after the havoc in Greenbrier, there was more loss by fire and 
massacre than on the former occasion. This time they had nothing 
to fear from Charles Lewis, for he was now serving in Pennsylvania 
under Colonel Bouquet. The other squad seems to have returned by 
way of Green Valley, near the head of Stuart's Creek. Close to the 
present home of Jasper C. Lewis, they killed one or more persons, and 
carried off the wife of Joseph Mayse, her son Joseph, Jr., and another 
woman, whose name is now unknown. The captors appear to be 
the same party that attacked the home of William Wilson at the 


mouth of Bolar Run. They were beaten off, though not until they 
had wounded the wife of Wilson, and a daughter, and carried away 
his son Thomas. 

Joseph Mayse afterward wrote an account of his experience. 
His guard camped the first night on the west slope of Warm Springs 
Mountain, and at a large pine, which continued to stand until a few 
years since. A lateral root made the spot where the boy was order- 
ed to lie down a most uncomfortable couch. For a while he feared 
to complain, lest he be quieted with a tomahawk. But his position 
proving quite unendurable, he nudged the Indian lying by his side 
and made him understand the situation. The brave made a comrade 
move over, so as to permit the boy to rest in some comfort. On the 
Greenbrier the Indians were overtaken by a pursuing force. The 
pony which young Mayse was riding carried also a coil of rope, and 
in the confusion caused by the attack, an end of the rope caught on 
a bush and dragged him off. He was thus restored to his people. 

While Cornstalk was falling upon the Greenbrier settlement, a 
band of Delawares and Mingoes divided on New River, one party 
going to Catawba Creek and the other to Dunlap. The latter cross- 
ed Jackson's River above Fort Young and went on to Carpenter's 
blockhouse, which stood near the residence of Colonel W. A. Gil- 
liam. Near the house they killed and scalped William Carpenter, 
after which they plundered the dwelling, took his son Joseph, two 
Brown children and a woman, and began their return by way of 
Greenbrier. The shot was heard at Fort Young, but as the garrison 
was weak, an express was sent to Captain Audley Paul at Fort Din- 
widdie. He pursued, and though he did not overtake this party, he 
came up with and scattered the party returning from the Catawba. 
The younger Brown became known as Colonel Samuel Brown of 
Greenbrier. His brother remained with the reds, but visited his 
mother in her old age. Joseph Carpenter became a doctor in 

It is probable that the attack on the Carpenters occurred only a 
day or two after the battle at Fort Mann. 

Bouquet's victory at Brushy Run near the site of Pittsburg, 
brought an early end to the war with Pontiac. The Indians were 
required to give up the prisoners they had collected during the pre- 
ceding ten years. In the number were Mrs. Mayse, John Byrd, and 



doubtless several other persons belonging to the Bath area. One of 
the restored girls was reared by Captain Dickenson, and she became 
the wife of James McClung. As in several other similar instances 
her real name was never learned. 

The following letter of the Indian period is the earliest we know 
of to be written in Bath. It seems to have been addressed to Thomas 

Jackson's River, May ye 15th, 1755. 
Dear Brother, 

I have been stopping here several days in purchasing 
of provisions. I have purchased as much grain as will serve three months, 
but will have a great deal of deficiency in getting of meat. I propose to 
march in ye Narrows towards Greenbrier. I think I shall go to Marlings 
(now Marlinton, W. Va.) in two days, where I purpose to construct a small 
fort. I hope you will be so kind as to remind Mr. Jones (Gabriel Jones, 
King's Attorney of Augusta County) to bring pay for my company from 
Colonel Wood as often as he has an opportunity, which he promised to do. 
I have nothing that is new to acquaint you of. I am, dear brother, your 
most affectionate and very humble servant, 

Andrew Lewis. 

A partial list of Captain John Dickenson's Rangers in 1757-59 
affords the following names: 

Bollar, John (Sergeant) Hamilton, William 

Carpenter, Solomon 
Carpenter, Thomas 
Carrigan, Patrick 
Davis, William 
Fulton, John 
Galloway, David 

Jameson, Andrew 

Johnston, James 

Kelly, Thomas (corpo 

Madison, Humphrey (en- Taylor, John 

sign) Wiley, John 

Wiley, Peter 

McMullen, John 

Persinger, Abraham 

Persinger, Jacob 

Persinger, Philip 

Shields, William 

Gillespie, Robert, Sr. (ser- McMullen, Edward 

The following is the muster roll of Captain George Wilson's 
company, August 11, 1756: 

Hugh Hicklin — lieutenant Barton, James 
Thomas Hughart — ensign Bell, Joseph 
Charles Gilham — ser- Black, William 

William Johnson — corpo- 



Bodkin, James 
Bodkin, John 
Bodkin, Richard 
Bright, Samuel 
Burnett, William 
Carlile, John 

Carlile, Robert (1) 
Carlile, Robert (2) 
Davis, Patrick 
Deckert, Simon 
De La Montony, Samuel 
Duffield, Robert 
Elliott, Andrew 
Estill, Benjamin 
Estill, Boude 



Gilbert, Felix 
Hall, Robert 
Harper, Hance 
Harper, Matthew 
Harper, Michael 
Hicklin, John 
Hicklin, Thomas 
Jackson, James 
Jordan, Adam 
Jordan, John 

Knox, James 
Lewis, George 
„ewis, John 
Long, Stephen 
Mayse, James 
McClenahan, Elijah 
McClenahan, William 
Miller, James 
Miller, John 
Miller, Patrick 

Miller, Valentine 
Miller, William 
Phegan, Philip 
Price, William 
Sprowl, William 
Stull, Frederick 
Warwick, William 
Wilfong, Michael 
Wilson, Samuel 

The letter below was written from Sitlington Creek, Pocahontas 
county, a spot then on the very edge of white settlement, but techni- 
cally within the Indian domain. The writer subsequently moved to 
the Cowpasture. 

Green Briar September 25th 1766 
Dr Brother 

This comes to let you know that I am in good health 
at Present blessed be God for it hoping these will find you and your Fami- 
ly in the same Condition, for tho' we have been long absent from each 
other, yet neither Time nor distance of Place can remove the Brotherly 
Affection I have for you. As for my Situation in this Country I live on a 
Branch of the Mississippi Waters, which is a very fertile Land but it is 
not yet Purchased from the Indians. I enjoy a reasonable Living; but have 
been long in a dangerous situation from the incursions of the Savages, yet 
thro the Protection of God have hitherto Escaped, and had I the comfort of 
you to Converse with shou'd think myself Happy: But I dare not advise 
to come to this Country, Yet were I in Ireland and had such a Family as 
you have and cou'd foresee it no other way, I wou'd bind myself & them be- 
fore I wou'd stay to be so Oppressed, but you have no Occasion, for if you 
are unable to pay your Passage, come upon Redemption to Pennsylvania and 
Brother William will soon relieve you, and as soon as I have an Opportu- 
nity I will repay it him. 

I had the Comfort of hearing of your welfare by Brother William which 
gave me great Satisfaction and likewise I heard of Brother Thomas. 

I have no Child which makes me the more Desirous to have you hear, 
my Wife Joins in our Love to you and Family and Sister Elizabeth and 
her Family and to all old Friends, which is all from your Affectionate & 
Loving Brother till Death 

Andrew Sitlington 


Ten years of nominal peace succeeded ten years of intermittent 
war. The boundary line between the two races had been pushed 
westward to the Ohio, and yet England was vainly trying to keep 
the Americans from settling beyond the Alleghany Front. In the 
spring of 1774 anoether conflict was in sight. Wanton outrages were 
being committed by white men as well as red men, and the latter 
were putting on their war-paint. A campaign aganst the tribesmen 
was planned at the capital of Virginia. It was arranged that Andrew 
Lewis, then a member of the House of Burgesses from Botetourt, 
should lead an expedition to the mouth of the Great Kanawha. He 
was there to be joined by Governor Dunmore in person with 1200 
men from the lower counties of the Valley of Virginia. Thus 
opened the Dunmore war, waged on the side of the white people by 
Virginia alone and against the desire of the British government. The 
white soldiers taking part in it were almost wholly of American 
birth and nearly all came from west of the Blue Ridge. 

The militia were called out in June. During the last week of this 
month a band of Indians penetrated as far as the Cowpasture, and 
fired upon Fort Lewis from the steep hill just east of the river. The 
range was too great for the firearms then in use to do any damage. 
The redskins shouted to the men within to come out of the "Lewis 
hogpen" and be accommodated with all the fight they could wish. 
Charles Lewis was away at the time, and the defenders kept prudent- 
ly inside. John McClenahan, who had married a Lewis, lay dying 
in the stockade, and in setting down a mention of his death, his wife 
said it took place amid the yelling of the savages in the woods. 

Charles Lewis was now colonel of the Augusta militia. It was 
near this time that he wrote the following letter to Colonel William 
Preston : 

Dear Sir — I Received your letter of the 19th of June and will take all 
oportunity to a Quente you of Every thing that happens here worth your 
Notice, no Dout but you have herd of ye engagement that Capt Dickenson 
is had with ye Indians, he had one man killed and his Lieutenant Wound- 


cd. a fewe Days ago ye Indians fired at Wm Mcfarlen Neere ye Warm 
Springs and wounded him slitly. Ye inhabitants of our Frunter is in ye 
Greates Confuson. they are all gathered in forts. I have ordered out 
Several Compneys of Militia which I am in hops will put a stope to 
thir intended Hostilities. I hear that ye Assembly is to Meet ye 11th of 
Next Month when I hope they will fall on som Method to put an End to 
ye War. Since I begane to Rite to you I ha'e Re'd by way of Ex(p) ress from 
fort Pitt that ye Indians is Suing for Pace, as to further perticlers I will 
Refer you to my Brother (to) home I have sent Capt Connelly letter with 
ye Indians speech. 

I am Dr Sir your Humb Servant 

Chas. Lewis. 

July 9th 1774 

The regiment under Charles Lewis formed a part of the column 
led by his brother Andrew. Among his captains were John Skidmore 
from the South Branch, Samuel Wilson from the head of the Bull- 
pasture, Andrew Lockridge from the upper Cowpasture, John Lew- 
is from Warm Springs, John Dickenson from the lower Cowpasture, 
and George Mathews from Cloverdale. At the muster of September 
27, their companies numbered, respectively, 32, 25, 28, 21, 56, and 
60 men. The total for the regiment was 477. The muster rolls for 
the above companies do not seem to be in existence, and we are there- 
fore unable to publish the names of the soldiers. 

Warm Springs was at this time the western terminus of a wagon 
road, and several of the Augusta companies were assembled here by 
the close of August. By September 12, 96 wagon loads of provisions 
had arrived. Thence to the general rendezvous, where now stands 
the town of Lew T isburg, only a bridlepath was available. For the re- 
maining distance of 160 miles, a trail had to be cut through the woods. 
It took 19 days to make this part of the march. Colonel Lewis 
started from the Levels of Greenbrier September 6, his regiment con- 
voying 500 packhorses and 108 beeves. At every camping place a 
"grass guard" was put out to watch the cattle during the night. In- 
dian spies were all the while lurking in front of the head of the 
column, and once in a while they fired upon it. Matthew Arbuckle, 
later a captain in the Revolution, piloted the army to its destination. 
Ten years earlier, he had gone down the Kanawha with a load of 
furs. His home was on the James, near Island Ford, and his 
father, James Arbuckle, was one of the earliest settlers on this part of 
the river. 


At the end of August, Dunmore had not left Fort Pitt, now the 
city of Pittsburg. His progress down the river was slow to a need- 
less degree. He was to join the other column at Point Pleasant 
September 20, but 16 days later he was still as far up the river as the 
mouth of the Hockhocking. General Lewis arrived at the appointed 
place October 6, and sent William Mann and William Sharp to see 
where the governor was. They did not return for five days. Octo- 
ber 9, Dunmore informed Lews through a messenger that he had 
changed the plan of campaign. The southern division was now or- 
dered to meet the other some distance west of the Ohio. 

Lewis was intending to get ready the next day to move forward 
from Point Pleasant. Meanwhile a force of Indians, probably rath- 
er less than 800, and representing several tribes, had come in between 
the two armies, paying no attention to that of Dunmore. Their lead- 
er was Cornstalk, the Shawnee, one of the most able known in the 
history of the red race. Before daylight on the 10th, they were across 
the Ohio, and were stealing down the east bank in the hope of taking 
the Virginians by surprise. They nearly succeeded in doing so. 
There was slack discipline in the camp and the men were dissatisfied 
with the lean beafsteak issued to them. Quite a number were out in 
the woods hunting game, although the commander-in-chief had given 
orders that no soldier should go out of the camp or fire a gun. Some 
of these men, perhaps not always unintentionally, did not get back- 
in time for the battle. Two of the number discovered the approach 
of the Indians and gave the alarm. Colonels Lewis and Fleming: 
were ordered forward with five companies, including those of Dick- 
enson, Lockridge, and Wilson. They met the enemy half a mile 
from the camp, but were forced to give ground. Lewis was soon 
stricken with a mortal hurt and Fleming was severely wounded. A 
reenforcement was sent to the firing line. Other men were set to 
work felling trees for a breastwork. Such a protection for the camp 
should not have been left till the last moment. 

Across the tongue of land between the Ohio and the Great Ka- 
nawha, the struggle raged until dusk. The opposing forces were on- 
ly from six to twenty yards apart, every man taking a tree or any 
other cover that he could find. The forest resounded with the din 
of rifle and musket and with the yells and curses of paleface and red- 
skin. Above the noise of battle the Virginians could hear the loud 


voice of the Indian commander, shouting encouragement to his men. 
Under a better generalship than that of Lewis, the red men fought 
with a courage and determination that won the respect of their foes. 

At noon there was a lull. The Indians fell back to rising 
ground, dealing severe punishment to their pursuers. Not daring to 
undergo the loss which would come by pressing a direct attack on 
the new position, yet fearful of the result if the enemy was not dis- 
lodged before night, General Lewis sent three companies to go up the 
Kanawha, and then up a little tributary, so as to assail the left flank 
of the Indians in the rear. This maneuver decided the long and bitter 
conflict. Believing this turning movement was by Colonel Christian, 
whose regment of 300 men from Fincastle county did not arrive un- 
til after nightfall, the Indians drew farther back, although their de- 
fiant taunts made Lewis suspect that they were reenforced. The 
white men held the battlefield, although at the time they considered 
the result scarcely better than a draw. Under cover of the darkness 
Cornstalk made a skilful retreat across the Ohio, carrying all his 
wounded with him. It is not believed that the Indian casualties were 
much more than 100. According to Colonel James Smith, the total 
number of the dead was 28. Of these, 17 were scalped by the whites. 
Only one chief was slain. He was the father of the celebrated Te- 

To the Virginians the victory came dear. Their loss is variously 
stated and no official report is known to be in existence. It is some- 
times set as high as 200. Many of the wounded died in the camp 
owing to the want of competent care. Of the Augusta men 22 were 
killed and 55 were wounded. Of the company officers under Colo- 
nel Lewis, Captain Wilson was killed outright and Captains Dicken- 
son and Skidmore were wounded. 

At Point Pleasant, as in most other battles between the whites 
and the reds, the latter had the fewer men in action and they inflicted 
the heavier loss. Yet they have not the white man's persistence in 
battle, and they are not patient under such losses as they received at 
Point Pleasant. In this instance they were discouraged at their 
failure to overwhelm their adversaries, and by going back to their vil- 
lages they gave up the campaign. 

After waiting for provisions, General Lewis crossed the Ohio 
October 17th. Captain Lockridge was left at Point Pleasant with 119 


men of the Augusta regiment. When the army had advanced 80 
miles, Dunmore sent Lewis an order to return, saying that a peace was 
being arranged. But the column that had done all the righting was 
suspicious of the governor's intention, and the march was continued 
until the governor put in a personal appearance. Each army re- 
turned the way it had come, Lewis leaving 100 men to garrison the 
fort built on the battleground. 

The agreement between the governor and the Indians was a tem- 
porary and not a final treaty. The red men were to give up all the 
prisoners, valuables, and domestic animals that they had taken. They 
were not to molest any boats on the Ohio, nor were they to hunt east 
of that river. A more permanent treaty was made the next year. On 
the side of the whites it was effected by the Americans themselves 
and not by the tory governor. 

The untimely death of Colonel Charles Lewis at the age of 38 
was recognized as a public calamity. His personal magnetism and 
his social qualities made him a leader of men. He was the youngest 
of the sturdy, forceful sons of the founder of Augusta and the only 
one that was born in America. No other was so brilliant and prom- 
ising, or so beloved by the people. He was a captain when 21 and 
a magistrate when 27. As a fighter of Indians he was one of the 
most successful. He was fearless, and had he lived through the war 
of the Revolution, it is safe to affirm that he would have been one 
of the best known and most efficient of the American generals. Lewis 
County in West Virginia is named in his honor. 

Against the remonstrance of his brother Andrew, Charles Lewi* 
went out on the morning of the battle of Point Pleasant arrayed in 
a red coat, thus making himself too conspicuous a target. He was 
stricken by a bullet before he had taken a tree. While walking to 
the rear, he handed his gun to a soldier, telling the man to "go on 
and be brave." To those who asked about his hurt, he replied tlr>- 
it was "the fortune of the war." 

His untiring energy and the public demands upon his time nr 
attested by the very believable statement that after he came to man- 
hood he was never home more than a month at a time. Like all 
the Lewis brothers he was practical and thrifty. The tract of 950 
acres of fine river bottom that his father selected for him became the 
plantation of Fort Lewis. He acquired other lands himself, includ- 



ing several surveys on the Greenbrier. His will, dated precisely two 
months before his death, was proved by John Dickenson and Charles 
Cameron, the latter being his brother-in-law. The appraisement of 
his personality, which totaled nearly $4000, was entrusted to John 
Cowarden, Thomas Feamster, and John and Robert McCreery. 
Such possessions as 24 horses, 96 cattle, 43 sheep, and 50 hogs made 
Colonel Lewis a wealthy planter. The will and inventory mention 
eight slaves and a white man servant, furniture valued at $117.58, a 
bookcase at $16.67, a looking glass at $10, and a suit of brown 
clothes at $30. All this indicates a comparative degree of luxury, 
when we stop to consider that a dollar would go much farther then 
than now. His watch, scheduled at $30, was probably the one for 
which his father left hm a special legacy, and provided that his own 
initials should be engraved thereon as a token of esteem and affection. 

Charles Lewis was spare of figure and upward of six feet in 
height. He was married to Sarah Murray in 1761. Their children 
were -ilizabeth, Margaret, John, Mary, Thomas, Andrew, and 
Charles. John, who married Rachel Miller, inherited \hc home- 
stead, where he died in 1843 at the age of 77. Colonel Andrew 
Lewis wedded Margaret Stuart and died in 1833, aged 61. Charles, 
Jr. was borr a ht'le after his father set out on lv.s last expedition. He 
was married to Jane Dickenson in 1799 and died only four years later 
Thomas and Mary lived single. The husband of Margaret was Ma- 
jor Prior. 

From miscellaneous courses we gather the following names of 
men who served in the expedition to Point Pleasant. Nearly or quite 
all of them must have served under Colonel Charles Lewis: 

Carpenter, Jeremiah 
Carpenter, John 
Carpenter Solomon 
Carpenter, George 
Douglas, George 
Douglas, James 
Dunlap, Robert 
Gillespie, Thomas 
Hamilton, Isaiah 
Hamilton, Jacob 
Hamilton, James 

Hamilton, John 
Hamilton, Thomas 
Jameson, John 
McClintic, William 
Knox, James 
Mann, John 
Mann, William 
Mayse, Joseph 
Milican, John 
Persinger, Jacob 

Reagh, Archibald 
Reagh, John 
Scott, James 
Scott, William 
Shannon, Samuel 
Steward, John 
Steward, William 
Ward, James (Capt.) 
Ward, Wm. (Sergt.) 
Wilson, Wm. (Sergt.) 



ITH respect to Virginia soil there were three stages in the 
war for American Independence. There was first the 
campaign against Dunmore, which was confined to the 
counties on Chesapeake Bay, and it came to an end with 
the expulsion of the tory governor early in 1776. Next came the 
invasion by Arnold and Cornwallis, limited to the country east of 
the Blue Ridge and to the 10 months closing with the surrender of 
Cornwallis in October, 1781. The last stage was the warfare with 
the Indians, which was carried on west of the Blue Ridge, and prin- 
cipally west of the Alleghanies. It lasted intermittently from the 
summer of 1776 until after the treaty with England in 1783. The 
British never came nearer to Bath than Charlottesville. The only 
practical danger was from the Indians, and they do not appear to have 
come inside the present limits of the county. 

The soldiers of the Revolution were of three classes: the militia, 
called out only on special emergency; the provincials, or state 
troops, enlisted for home defense by the state governments; and the 
continentals, enlisted for long terms under the direct authority of 
the Continental Congress. The continentals were trained soldiers 
and consequently the most efficient and dependable. The militia 
came direct from their homes on absurdly short "tours of duty." Not 
onl\ were they untrained, but they were imperfectly under the con- 
trol of their officers. Hence they were easily demoralized, and at 
such a time each man took no thought except to look out for himself. 
They were seldom on the actual firing line, and when they did get 
into a real engagement, they were very much inclined to take to their 
heels. Yet on several occasions their behavior was all that could 
reasonably be asked. 

As in the case of other counties, the able-bodied white adults of 
Bath were with few exceptions enrolled as militia. But the records 
of the Revolution are so brief and incomplete that we can affirm 
very little as to the names of its citizens who were enrolled as pri- 


vates in the militia companies, or in the continental and provincial or- 
ganizations. With respect to the officers our informaton is more 

General Andrew Lewis was placed in charge of the operations 
against Dunmore, and he soon drove the hated governor to the shelter 
of the British fleet. His campaign was far from the mountains and 
on a small scale, and we do not certainly know that any Bath men 
took part in it. Arnold's marauding career on the lower James, 
and the approach of Cornwallis in the spring of 1781 were far more 
serious. Nearly 1700 of the Virginia militia took part in the battle 
of Guilford, where their conduct was unusually good, owing to a 
stiffening in their companies of some experienced men who had seen 
service in Washington's army. Among these troops were militiamen 
from this county under Robert McCreery, John Bollar, and David 
Gwin. Gwin's men, and probably the other commands also, rode on 
horseback until they had crossed the Dan into North Carolina. The 
horses were then sent home under guard. Robert Sitlington, Wil- 
liam Gillespie, and James Sloan were privates under McCreery. 
Sitlington grieved at the loss of the knife he had used as a gun-rest. 
"Bullets," he said, "were flying so thick that by God, sir, I had to 
leave that knife sticking where it was." 

At Guilford the Virginia militia gave a good account of them- 
selves. Their deadly rifle-fire repelled several assaults by the red- 
coats. Cornwallis was virtually defeated and his shattered army 
was driven to the sea coast. He gave up his attempt to subdue North 
Carolina and joined Arnold at Petersburg. While the British lead- 
er was pursuing the small American army under Lafayette, his cavalry 
under Tarleton burned the little village of Charlottesville, where 
the Assembly was in session. The legislature fled to Staunton, and 
sat there from June 7th to June 23d. But Tarleton remembered his 
overthrow at Cowpens and did not try to force his way through 
Rockfish Gap. He seems to have had a wholesome respect for the 
Scotch-Irish militia of the VaUey. The whole British army pres- 
ently fell back toward the coast. 

There were now heavy calls on the militia. Perhaps a larger 
number of Bath men were at the front than were present at Guil- 
ford. On the peninsula between the James and the York they saw 
fightng under Colonels Robert McCreery and Sampson Mathews, 


Mathews had been south of the James the preceding winter, as a part 
of the force under General Steuben, who was watching Arnold, at 
Portsmouth. McCreery and Mathews were in the battle of Green 
Spring, which took place near Jamestown, July 6th. Under Mc- 
Creery were the horsemen of Captain Peter Hull. Under Mathews 
were Captains David Gwin, Thomas Hicklin, William Kincaid, and 
John Brown. Brown was taken prisoner and was succeeded by 
Charles Cameron, who had served as adjutant. Brown's lieutenant 
was Robert Thompson. Gwin's subalterns were Lieutenant William 
McCreery and Ensign Alexander Wright. Hicklin's were Lieuten- 
ant Joseph Gwin and Ensign Thomas Wright. 

At Yorktown, where the redcoats in Virginia laid down their 
arms, about 3000 of the state militia were present. There was no 
further attempt by the British to prosecute the war with their own 
men. Within and beyond the mountains, the case was different. 
For nearly three years after their experience at Point Pleasant, the 
Ohio Indians remained quiet. But being stirred up by British emis- 
saries, whose home government did not scruple to turn loose the 
savages on women and children as well as men, they once more began 
to raid the settlements beyond the Alleghanies. Still earlier on the 
warpath were the Cherokees, who in 1776 became troublesome in the 
valley of the Holston. 

The menace from the Indians was enough to make it necessary to 
garrison such posts as Fort Dinwiddie. During the two years be- 
ginning with the fall of 1776, Captains John Lewis, Robert Mc- 
Creery, Andrew Lockridge, and Samuel McCutchen were by turns 
in command at this point. Captain John McKittrick was here in 
the early summer of 1 780. The stockade was burned by a tenant in 
the spring of the same year, but for what cause we do not know. 
During the summer of 1777 there was a guard of six men at William 
Wilson's at the mouth of Bolar Run. Fort Warwick on The Green- 
brier was held the same year by Captain John Lewis, and the next 
year by Captain Samuel Vance, whose lieutenant was John Cart- 
mil]. Vance became a lieutenant colonel in 1782. 

Augusta companies were also marched into Bath, either to gar- 
rison the local posts or to proceed to the Greenbrier and Tygart's 
Valley rivers, or even to the Ohio and Monongahela. In 1777. 
John Dickenson, now a colonel, led his regiment to Point Pleasant, 


whence General Hand was to march against the Indian towns on the 
Scioto. Through a seeming lack of energy that officer contented 
himself with announcing the surrender of Burgoyne and then dis- 
missing the troops. A few days before the arrival of General Hand, 
Cornstalk was treacherously murdered by the militia from Rock- 
bridge. Next May the Shawnees sought to avenge his death by at- 
tacking the fort of Andrew Donally in Greenbrier. They were 
beaten off before the relief column under Captains Tate, Buchanan, 
and Long could arrive. About this time Captain Lockridge was at 
Vance's fort, and a year later at Clover Lick, both points being in 
the Greenbrier valley. So late as 1782 Captain George Poage was 
stationed at Clover Lick. Even a year later Colonel Sampson 
Mathews reported an alarm at that place, and the wife of Christo- 
pher Graham of the Bullpasture thought it advisable to flee with her 
child to Deerfield on the east side of Shenandoah Mountain. So 
far as we know, this was the last Indian alarm in this region, although 
so late as 1788 Juhn Stuart, of Greenbrier, feared that Indians 
and foreigners would drive out all the people west of the Blue Ridge. 
Not until Wayne's treaty with the Indians in 1795 was the peril 
finally removed. 

In 1780, Thomas Hughart, John McCreery, and Andrew Lock- 
ridge were respectively colonel, lieutenant colonel, and major of the 
Second Battalion of the Augusta militia. Other local officers not 
already named were Captains John Given, James Hicklin, and John 
Oliver; Lieutenants Samuel Black, James Bratton, Samuel McClin- 
tic, and Robert McFarland; and Ensigns Thomas Catrmill, Jona- 
than Humphrey, and Moses McClintic. 

During the war the machinery of local government moved about 
as usual. Yet there was much hardship. Foreign trade was pre- 
carious on account of the British war vessels hovering along the coast. 
There was no good money except specie. The paper bills issued by 
the Congress became more and more worthless. In the spring of 
1781 it took $140 in paper to go as far as $1 in coin. The previous 
October, James Bratton, as keeper of an inn, rendered a bill against 
Anthony Mustoe for $150 for seven meals, four lodgings, and a few 
glasses of liquor. The taxes were very oppressive, and although they 
could be paid in produce, some persons refused to pay them at all, 
and some officers refused to make collections. 


To draw the line between patriot and tory, a law of 1777 re- 
quired that an oath of allegiance be administered to the citizens. 
Richard Mayse was assigned to this duty in the territory covered by 
the militia companies of Captains Dean and Robinson. 

This district seems to have been nearly free from tory disturbanc- 
es, such as took place on the South Branch to the northward or in 
Montgomery County to the southward. In fact, the only exception 
of which we have any positive knowledge is narrated by Colonel 
Skillern, of Botetourt, in a letter to Governor Nelson, dated June 26, 
1781. He states that about four years earlier, Captain Lapsley had 
taken as recruits Solomon Carpenter and Samuel Lyons, telling them 
they were to go into Washington's bodyguard and to have 3^ shil- 
lings a day. Finding this representation untrue on their arrival at 
the army headquarters, the men deserted, came home, and hid in the 
mountains. At the date of the letter there were supposed to be from 
40 to 50 men in their band. Attempts to disperse them and capture 
their leader had failed. The two men in question came to Skillem's 
house under a flag, offering to serve subject to call during two years 
in the county militia or to join George Rogers Clark for two 
years. Skillern recommends acceptance of the terms. Carpenter, a 
bold, daring, active man, had been with the Indians some time, and 
intimated that if his terms were not accepted he would go back to 
them. His comrades were active woodsmen, well armed with rifles, 
and might become dangerous. The writer adds that there were par- 
ties of tories and deserters in Montgomery and Washington, who 
were probably in correspondence with one another. 

Aside from the officers we have mentioned, the following men of 
the Dunmore and Revolutionary wars appear to have belonged with- 
in the Bath area or nearly so: 

Black,. Alexander, Jr. Mayse, Joseph — wounded at 
Black, James Point Pleasant 

Black, William McAvoy, Hugh — killed 

Burnside, James McFarland, Alexander — wounded 

Byrd, John Montgomery, James 

Cowarden, John Sitlington, Robert 

Gillespie, William Sloan, James 

Some of the pensioners of the Revolution, whose names appear in 


1832, were born elsewhere, or settled in this country after that war. 
Among them were Richard Cole, an Englishman, who enlisted in Bath 
in 1780; William Keyser, of Glouchester County; Andrew McCaus- 
land and William Bonner, of Pennsylvania; and John Putnam, of 

This chapter would not be complete without some mention of that 
eccentric and masculine woman, known to American border history 
as Mad Ann Bailey. She was given this name because of her iras- 
cible Welch temper. Her maiden name was Dennis, and she was 
a native of Liverpool. She came to Staunton at the age of 13, and ten 
years later wedded James Trotter, who was killed at Point Pleasant. 
The pair had a son named William, who was born in 1767. Ann 
Bailey left her child with Mrs. Moses Mann, a near neighbor, put on 
masculine apparel, and for several years was a hunter and scout. 
One of her reasons for adopting such an unfeminine career was to 
avenge the death of her husband. According to tradition she took 
more than one scalp. Her most famous exploit was her relief of 
Fort Lee, which stood where the city of Charleston, West Virginia, 
afterward arose. The stockade was besieged by Indians, the powder 
gave out, and it was very dangerous for a courier to get past the 
assailants. But Mad Ann volunteered, rode swiftly on her horse 
"Liverpool" to Fort Union — now Lewisburg, — and came back with 
an extra horse with a fresh supply of powder. This was in 1791, 
when she was 49 years of age. For a year or so, she lived in a hut 
on Mad Ann's Ridge, on the south side of Falling Spring Run. On 
one occasion her black horse went on to Mann's without his rider. A 
party from the stockade went out to follow the trail, and located 
Mad Ann by airholes in the snow. She had failed asleep, either from 
liquor or drowsiness. According to Ann Royall, who knew her in 
her old age, she could both drink and swear.. In 1785 she married 
James Trotter. Her last years were spent on the farm of her only 
son, who settled in Gallia County, Ohio. Eccentric to the last, she 
refused to live in his comfortable house, and stayed in a cabin near 
by, which she built herself. Here she died in 1825 at the age of 83. 
In 1901 her remains were reinterred in the memorial park at Point 
Pleasant. In personal appearance, Mrs. Bailey was short, stout, 
coarse, and masculine, yet affable and pleasing. She wore a coat in- 
stead of a gown and she could read and write. While ranging the 



forest she "hahvays carried a hax and a hauger and could chop as 
well as any man." 

The longest of Colonel Dickenson's letters that we have seen is 
addressed to General Edward Hand, and is of this tenor: 

Point Pleasant Near Fort Randolph 

. 7th Novr 1777 

Dear Sr — Colo Skilron from Bottetourt and myself from augusta arived 
here with our Troops from Each County the 5th Instant whare we flattered 
our selves of the hapyness of meeting yr Excelency but being Disapointed 
Do greatly fear that some accident or Disapointment has fell in yr Way 
Which I should be hearttely sorry for our No. of Troops are Not men- 
tioned here as the strength of the Whol is Inclosed in Capt. Arbuckles Let- 
ter agree able to yr Excelencys Instructions to your county Lieutnt. We 
brought Flour and salt seficiant only to bring us to this place as we ware 
greatly Detained on our march by Rain and high Waters. We Expected to 
have met with a seficiant supply of provisions here but to our great morti- 
fication found the garison out of salt and very scarce of Flour tho Wile we 
have Beef are Willing to surmount every Deficasy and hardship until We 
Either see or hear from yr Excelency. our Troops are extremely good In 
general and in high spirits Keen for the Expedition under a Commander of 
so great a Caracter as yrself 

I am Dear general tho unacquainted Yr Excelencys most obedient and 
very Hbie Servt 

John Dickenson. 



HE STORY of Selim, a native of Algeria, is perhaps the 
most picturesque incident in the early annals of Bath. 
Between 1764 and 1774 Samuel Given was hunting on 
the Greenbrier. He had at least one extra horse for 
carrying home the game he hoped to secure. In the top of a fallen 
tree he espied an object which he at first took to be a wild animal, 
and he came very near firing into it. A more deliberate glance satis- 
fied him that what he saw was a human being, but not an Indian. 
Going to the tree he found a man in a most pitiable condition. He 
was stark naked except for some rags wrapped about his feet. His 
body was very much emaciated, and his skin was thickly marked by 
scars and scabs. In a word he was in an advanced stage of starvation. 
Neither man could understand the other's language, and they 
could converse only by signs. The hunter at once made himself a 
Good Samaritan. He took as good care of the unfortunate stranger 
as was possible under the circumstances. In giving him something to 
eat, he prudently allowed very little at first, and increased the amount 
as the digestive organs of the famished man began to recover their 
normal tone. After a few days the patient had gained enough 
strength to be able to ride the led horse. He was now taken to the 
home of Captain John Dickenson and made welcome after the open- 
hearted manner of the frontier. He remained with Dickenson sev- 
eral months, meanwhile recovering his strength and rapidly acquiring 
the ability to converse with his new friends. At length it became 
possible for him to tell who he was, and how he had failed into the 
plight from which he was so providentially rescued. 

His name was Selim and he was a son of a wealthy Algerine. The 
father sent him to Constantinople for an advanced education. While 
the young man was returning home his ship was captured by a Span- 
ish man-of-war. He was transferred to a French vessel bound for 
New Orleans. The Algerines as well as the other nations of Bar- 
bary were at this time great pirates. They made slaves of their cap- 


tives and were themselves treated with scant consideration whenever 
they fell into the hands of any of the Europeans. From New Or- 
leans Selim was taken to the Shawnee towns on the Scioto. A white 
woman, also a prisoner of the Indians, told him by signs that she 
came from the east. Selim knew there were English colonies on the 
Atlantic shore and judged correctly that she came from that quarter. 
He found an opportunity to escape from the Indians, and tried to find 
the white settlements, so that he might return to his own people. 

He had nearly succeeded when stumbled upon by Given. But he 
had found little to eat except nuts and berries and became too weak 
for any farther progress. The bushes and briars had torn his cloth- 
ing into shreds, and these he had wrapped about his feet to give them 
some protection. His exposed skin had been so often lacerated by 
thorns and other obstacles as to present the condition observed by the 
hunter. He had resigned himself to a death by starvation or by wild 
beasts, and for a last resting place had chosen the top of the tree in 
which he was found. 

Dickenson treated the unfortunate Moor with a noble generosity. 
He gave him a horse to ride and took him to see the neighbors of the 
settlement. Selim accompanied his host to Staunton, at a time when 
the county court was sitting, and there attracted much notice. The 
attention of the Algerine was particularly fixed upon the Presbyter- 
ian minister, John Craig, who lived near the town. Selim asked 
the privilege of going home with the preacher and the request was 
granted. He then explained his reason. He told Mr. Craig that 
during his journey through the forest the pangs of hunger caused 
vivid dreams. In one of these visions he saw marshaled in military 
order on an immense plain a vast assemblage of people, all dressed 
alike. In the distance was a person of distinguished appearance. 
Every now and then some member of the throng would undertake to 
go to him, but when half way there would suddenly disappear into a 
pit. Other persons, who asked directions of an old man standing by 
himself, passed safely across. Mr. Craig was recognized as the old 
man seen in the dream, and it was for this reason that Selim asked to 
go home with him. He wished to be instructed in the principals of 
Christianity. The French had tried to make him a convert, but his 
Mohammedan train ing made him think the use of images by the 


Catholics was a form of idolatry. Selim was a quick pupil. He un- 
derstood the Greek language and probably had a better insight into 
the meaning of the Greek Testament than the minister himself. Se- 
lim embraced Christianity and was baptized at the old Stone Church. 

But at length the Moor expressed a longing to go to his old home, 
and could not be moved from his purpose. Some money was raised 
through the efforts of Mr. Craig, who also gave him a letter of in- 
troduction to Robert Carter, a member of the House of Burgesses 
from Westmoreland. The legislature was then in session at Wil- 
liamsburg. Mr. Carter did all that was asked of him, and Selim 
was thus enabled to recross the Atlantic. 

After some years the Algerine reappeared at Dickenson's with a 
disordered mind. In his lucid moments he said he had been home, 
but that his father would have nothing to do with him on account of 
his acceptance of Christianity. At Warm Springs he was much 
pleased with the gift of a Greek Testament by a young minister 
named Templeton. He visited Mr. Carter, and wherever he ap- 
peared he aroused great sympathy. John Page, when governor of 
Virginia, took him to Philadelphia and had his portrait painted by 
Rembrandt Peale, the celebrated artist. From that city he accompa- 
nied a man of South Carolina to his home. He returned to Virginia, 
and in Prince Edward County learned to sing the hymns by Watts. 
For a while he was an inmate of the hospital for the insane at Wil- 
liamsburg. At a date unknown, but which must have been some 
years later than 1805, he died at a private house. 

Thus the story of Selim is pathetic as well as unusual. It is 
gratifying to know that he was treated with great kindness by the 
strange people he tried so hard to reach. 



( E HAVE seen that Botetourt was set off from Augusta 
in 1769. Eight years later Rockingham and Rockbridge 
were formed and Augusta was reduced to its present 
breadth, north and east. But westward it still reached 
beyond the Alleghanies. The greater portion of it lay to the west 
of Shenandoah Mountain. This broad and lofty range is indicated 
by nature as a political boundary. It is even yet very largely a 
wilderness. Nothing could be more certain than that the people 
living on the farther side would agitate for a new county just as soon 
as there might be any possibility of realizing this desire. 

Bath was not actually established until the closing month of 1790. 
And yet it was almost thirteen years earlier that the first petition for 
this purpose was sent up to the General Assembly. This petition 
with its signers will be found at the close of the present chapter. 
Slightly more than a year later there was a second petition, whch in- 
cluded the request that the courthouse site be located in the valley o? 
the Cowpasture. A third petition, presented in the very same year- 
1779 — asked that the proposed county include portions of Botetoir 
and Rockbridge lying in the Cowpasture and Jackson's River valleys. 
It was represented that in order to attend court some of the petitioners 
had to travel a hundred miles and cross high mountains and rapid 
streams. Some of the movers for the new county wanted the valley 
of the Calfpasture included. 

Notwithstanding the energy shown in these efforts, the time 
was not favorable to immediate action. The people of Virginia had 
to struggle with high taxation and depreciated paper money. The 
Revolution had not yet been fought to a finish, and much attention 
was necessarily bestowed upon the British, the tories, and the In- 
dians. In 1780 and 1781, British armies were ravaging the country 
east of the Blue Ridge. So we need not feel surprised that no fur- 
ther effort was made until after the return of peace. 

In 178S there was a petition signed by 522 men, John McCreery. 
Alexander Black. John Kincaid, and John Lewis, of Warm Springs. 


being active in the movement. In October, 1788, there was another 
paper, the petitioners saying that their troubles with the Indians had 
prevented them from addressing the Assembly at an earlier date. The 
settlers west of the Alleghany were strenuous in their appeal. They 
urge as a strong consideration the fact that there was now a wagon 
road to Kentucky to take the place of the pioneer bridle-path. 

The petition below was written by a man of lame scholarship and 
does not compare favorably with the general run of the formal docu- 
ments of the colonial era. 

13th April 1778 

To the Honble Specker & Gentilmen Deligates setting now 
The Petision of the Inhabitance of Cow and Calf pastures Bull pasture 
Jackson River and Back Creek Humbly Sheweth 

That yr pensioners Not only at present but for many years past have 
Labored under so great and grievous Disadvantages by Reason of the 
great Distance the most of us yr petisioners Lives from our Courts of Jus- 
tice from forty and fifty and others Near seventy Miles from our Nearest 
Court House besides those on our plantation in the upper end of green bryer 
at thirty and forty miles farther Back Not to Mention Tygers valley which 
is yet Dependent on Augusta, so it would be Better for the most of us to 
put up with small Losses and Injuries Don to us than to attend our present 
courts for common Justice at so great a Distance and specially in theze 
Extravagant Times therefore we yr petisioners Humbly prays that our 
great Deficulty and hardships may be Removed by granting us a New coun- 
ty of our Own and as som of us yr petisioners Inhabiters of the Calf pasture 
are Lately Thrown into Rockbridge County much against our minds and 
Inclinations as its vastly more Inconvenient than stanton and worse Road, 
therefore the VVhol of us yr petisioners Humbly prays that our County if 
granted may be struck of from augusta and Rock Bridge Counties by the 
Dividing Waters on the Top of the North Mountain The Lower End to be- 
gin on the Top of sd Mountain square with the Mouth of the Cowpasture 
River from thence to the Lower End of William Manns plantation at the 
mouth of the fawling spring on James River then to continue on a south 
line to the Waters of Green Bryer from the Beginning; the upper End Like- 
wise to begin on the Top of sd North Mountain opposite to the upper Inhab- 
iters of the Calf Pasture and from thence to the hd waters of Cow and Bull 
pastures then on a South Line to the Waters of Green Bryer from the Be- 
ginning; and as our Bounds is very Extensif and Inhabitance plenty in 
Number and Seficient Curcomstance to make good all Necessary public 
Buildings Required by Law We Earnestly pray that your goodness may Take 
our Case into yr consideration and grant our petision alowing our Court 
House to be Built in the Cowpasture where it may be sentrable and a greed 



upon by the Majority of us yr pensioners &c We Rest in suspense in hopes 
of success in our Request. 

And we as in Duty Bound shall pray 

Rafe Laforde 
Henry Beard 
John Macdonley 
VVm. Rhea 
Wm. Jameson 
Jas. Crocket 
Alex. Crocket 
William Black 
Alex Black 
William Jackson 
John Montgomery 
John Montgomery 
John Montgomery 
Patrick Miller 
John Kinkaid 
George Benston 
Jno. Dunlap 
Robt. Lough ridge 
Wm. Loughrilge 
John Loughridge 
Andey Loughridge 
Joseph Carpenter 
James Botkin 
James Clements 
Jas. Clements, Senr 
John Redman 
Robt. Duffell 
Stephen Willson 
Anthony Johnston 
James Rucker Jenr 
Samuel McDannell 
Wm. Daughherty. Jenr 
George Daugherty 
William Maze, Jenr 
Andr. Sitlington 
Saml. Cartmill 
John Redman 
Ralph Wilson 
Thos. Galaspy, Jenr 
Christian Snider 
Moses Knap 
John peeble 
George Blake 

John Montgomery 
Joseph Green 
David Frame 
Thomas Feemster 
John Feemster 
John Wilson, Jenr 
Jas. Dunwodie 
Wm. Dunwodie 
Wm. Given 
Wm. Green 
John Carlil 
James Carlil 
Robert Carlil 
John Cartmill 
James Hughart 
John Cowarding 
Joseph Mayse, Sr. 
Joseph Mayse, Jr. 
george francisco 
Chas. Cameron 
Robt. peebles 
Robt. McCree 
Lofty pullin 
Loftis pulin, Junr 
Sam Guliam 
Wm. Willson 
John Smith 
Thomas Cartmill 
Hugh Hicklin 
Jacob Warwick 
Robert Hall 
William Griffeth 
George Doherty 
Hugh Hicklin 
Robert Kinkade 
abraham hempstall 
Alexr. Crockett, Senr 
Samson Wilson 
Jas. Galaspy 
Caleb knap 
Theophilus Blake 
James Blake 

John McCreery 
Robert McCreery 
Mathias Benston 
Joseph Green, Jr. 
John Kinging 
James Peebles 
John hicklin 
Thos. hicklin 
Jas hicklin 
William Steuart 
James Stuart 
Edward Stuart 
Joseph Beathe 
John Miller 
William McCanles 
Thos. Douglas 
William Smith 
John Beverage 
Robert McMullin 
William Kilpatrick 
Andr. McCoslin 
Thos. Davis 
George Carlile 
Christopher Graham 
Ervin benson 
Wm. Jordan 
John Willson 
John Dickenson 
Robert Mcfarland 
Wm. Daugherty, Senr 
John beard 
Richard Maze, Junr 
William Doherty 
Chas. Donally 
Thos. Fitzpatrick 
Robert McCreery Junr 
Elibabb Wilson 
John Galaspy 
Christian Snider Jr 
John Brown 
John Blake 
John McCoslin 



HE efforts to divide what was left of Augusta County 
finally bore fruit. The following Act of Assembly was 
passed December 14, 1790: 

SECT. 1. Be it enacted by the General Assembly, That from and after 
the first day of May next, all those parts of the counties of Augusta, Bote- 
tourt, and Greenbrier, within the following bounds, to-wit, beginning at 
the west corner of Pendleton County, thence to he top of the ridge, dividing 
the head waters of the South branch from those of Jackson's river, thence 
a straight line to the lower end of John Redman's plantation on the Cow- 
pasture river, thence to the top of the ridge that divides the waters of the 
Cowpasture from those of the Calfpasure, thence along the same as far as 
the ridge that divides Hamilton's creek from Mill creek, thence to the Mill 
mountain, and with the same to the north corner of the line of Rockbridge 
County, thence along the said mountain crossing the line of Botetourt Coun- 
ty, to the ridge that divides the waters of Pad's creek from those of Simp- 
son's creek, thence along the said ridge to the Cowpasture river, thence 
crossing the said river a direct course and crossing Jackson's river, at the 
mouth of Dunlap creek, thence up the same as far as the narrows above 
the plantation of David Tate, so as to leave the inhabitants of the said 
creek in Botetourt County, thence a direct course to the top of the Alleghany 
mountain, where the road from the Warm Springs crosses the said moun- 
tain, thence along the top of the said mountain opposite the head waters 
of Anthony's creek, thence a direct course crossing Greenbrier river to the 
end of the Droop mountain, thence up the same to the great Greenbrier 
mountain, thence along the said mountain to the line of Randolph County, 
thence with the same along the said mountain dividing the waters of Mo- 
nongalia and Cheat from those of Greenbrier river, and thence to the be- 
ginning, shall form one distinct county, and be called and known by the 
name of Bath. 

SECT. 2. A court for the said county of Bath shall be held by the 
justices thereof on the second Tuesday in every month after the same shall 
take place, in like manner as is provided by law for other counties, and 
shall be by their commissions directed; and the court of quarterly sessions 
for the said county of Bath shall be held in the months of March, May, 
August and November in every year. 

SECT. 3. The justices to be named in the commission of the peace for 
the said county of Bath, shall meet at the house of Margaret Lewis at the 


Warm Springs, in the said count}-, upon the first court day after the said 
county takes place, and having taken the oaths prescribed by law, and ad- 
ministered the oath of office to, and taken bond of the sheriff according to 
law, proceed to appoint and qualify a clerk, and fix upon a place for hold- 
ing courts in the said county, at or as near the center thereof, as the situa- 
tion and convenience will admit of; and thenceforth the said court shall 
proceed to erect the necessary public buildings at such place, and until such 
buildings shall be completed, to appoint any place for holding courts, as they 
shall think proper. Provided always, That the appointment of a place for 
holding courts, and of a clerk, shall not be made unless a majority of the 
justices of the said county be present; where such majority shall have been 
prevented from attending by bad weather, or by their being at the time out 
of the county, in such cases the appoinment shall be postponed until some 
court day, when a majority shall be present. 

SECT. 4. The governor with advice of the council shall appoint a person 
to be sheriff of the said county, who shall continue in office during the term, 
and upon the same conditions as are by law appointed for other sheriffs. 

SECT. 5. Provided always, That it shall be lawful for the sheriffs of 
each of the said counties of Augusta, Botetourt and Greenbrier, to collect 
and make distress for any public dues or officers fees which shall remain 
unpaid by the inhabitants thertof, at the time the said county shall take 
place, and shall be accountable for the same in like manner as if this act 
had not been made. And the courts of the said counties shall have juris- 
diction of all actions and suits which shall be depending before them, at 
the time said county of Bath shall take place; and shall try and determine 
the same and award execution thereon. 

SECT. 6. In all further elections of a senator, the said county of Bath 
shall be of the same district as the county of Augusta. 

SECT. 7. And be it further enacted, That all that part of the county of 
Augusta lying on the headwaters of the Bullpasture and Cowpasture riv- 
ers, not included within the limits of the county hereby established, shall 
be and the same is hereby added to the county of Pendeton. 

SECT. 8. The said county of Bath shall be included in the district with 
the said county of Augusta, for which a court is to be holden in Staunton. 

A portion of the original Bath lay in the Greenhrier valley. This 
was at the request of the people who were living there. About 1796 
some of the people on Anthony's Creek several times petitioned to be 
annexed to Rath. 

The first session of the county court of Rath convened May 10, 
1791, at the home of the widow of Captain John Lewis. A part of 
the proceedings took place under a large shade tree, but later in the 
year the court voted Mrs. Lewis the sum of seven pounds for the use 
of her two-roomed house. 


The justices present on the opening day were John Bollar, John 
Dean, John Poage, William Poage, Samuel Vance, and John Wilson. 
Sampson Mathews was the first sheriff and Charles Cameron the first 
clerk, the bond of each being fixed at 1000 pounds ($3,333.33). 
William Poage became the first surveyor, and Samuel Vance the first 
coroner. The first attorneys were John Cotton, James Reid, and 
Archibald Stuart. The members of the first grand jury were Joseph 
Mayse (foreman), Samuel Black, Thomas Brock, John Dilley, James 
Hamilton, James Hughart, Owen Kelley, John Lynch, John Mc- 
Clung, Samuel McDonald, John Montgomery, Joseph Rhea, Wil- 
liam Rider, Robert Stuart, and Stephen Wilson. There was an ap- 
propriation of 25 shillings ($4.17) for blank books for the county 

According to the usage of the time, the first court defined the 
minimum rates for entertainment at taverns. The figures are as be- 
low when reduced from shillings and pence to Federal money. 

Dinner .21 Stabling and hay, 1 night .16 2-3 

Breakfast or supper .16 2-3 Pasturage, one night .08 

Cold supper .12^ West India rum, per gill .07 

Lodging .08 Common whiskey, per gill .04 

Corn or oats, per gallon .10J^ Cider, per quart .08 

The first misdemeanor of which the court took notice was the 
striking in its presence of John McCarty by Abraham Thompson. 
Thompson was fined $10. Next year both Thompson and Captain 
Thomas Lewis were summoned to answer the charge of rescuing 
property from the sheriff. In 1792 it was ordered that 30 lashes on 
the bare back be administered to a person who had stolen some goods. 

The first minister of the Gospel to present the necessary creden- 
tials was Charles Clark of the Presbyterian Church. The second — 
in 1796 — was John Pinnell of the Methodist Church. 

The portion of the county west of the Alleghany Front was di- 
vided into two constable districts. 

In April, 1792, Samuel Vance and John O'Hara were elected 
over John Brown and George Poage as delegates to the legislature. 
The largest number of votes polled was 217. The number of men 
subject to poll tax was 769, and about one-half of them were pre- 
sented by the grand jury for failing to vote. 


After holding office one year, the first sheriff resigned and went 
to Augusta. He was succeeded by John Bollar, Sampson Mathews, 
Jr., becoming his deputy. 

About this time the first mill license under Bath was granted to 
Hazael Willams on Lick Run. John Lyle and Michael Bowyer 
were named as practicing attorneys. 

In 1793 a deputy sheriff reported delinquent taxes to the amount 
of $75.93. The poll tax for that year was $256.33. 

And thus the county of Bath was launched upon its independent 


Heads of Families in 1782 

HE personal property books of 1872 are the oldest that 

have been preserved. Tithables, slaves, horses, and cattle 

are indicated, respectively, by T, S, h, and c. Where a 

T preceded by a numeral does not occur, there is but 

one tithable. 

List by Captain James Bratton of the Calfpasture: 

Adams, Thomas— 2T — 4-OS— 13h — 43c— also 1 chariot 

Armstrong, Archibald — Hh — 16c 

Bell, John— 4h— 12c 

Black, Rebeckah— 6h— lie 

Bratton, James — 3S — 14h — 19c 

Bratton, Adam — 8h 

Bratton, Robert— 5 S—l Oh— 45c 

Carlisle, John— IS— 7h— 26c 

Carson, Thomas — 3h 

Craig, Alexander — 2h — lie • 

Craig, Samuel — 9h — 8c 

Davis, Charles — 4h — '7c 

Davitt, Tulley— IS— 3h— 8c 

Elliot, John— IS— 9h— 14c 

Fauntleroy, Moore — US — 6h — lc — 1 two-wheeled chariot 

Fulton, James — IS — 6h — 15c 

Gay, James — lOh — 3c 

Graham, John — 7h — 30c 

Gaham, Elizabeth— 2S—7h— 25c 

Griffith, James — 4h — 12c 

Gween (Gwin), Robert, Sr. — 3h — 8c 

Gwin, Robert, Jr.— <7h — 12c 

Hamilton, Andrew, Sr. — 3S — 8h — 22c 

Hamilton, Andrew, Jr. — 6h — 6c 

Henderson, John — 2S — lh 

Henderson, Joans— 2S — 12h — 52c 

Hughart, Thomas— 5S—15h— 34c 

Jones, George — nothing 

Kelly, John— 4h— 9c 

Kincaid, John — 5h— 15c 

Kincaid, William — 9h — 21c 


Lockridge, John — 3h — 10c 
Lockridge, William — 4h — Sc 
Lockridge, Samuel — 4h — 12c 
Mateers, William — 9h — 25c 
Mathews, Sampson — 14S — 26h — 45c 
McCutchens, Robert— IS— 7h— 24c 
McCutchens, John — IS — 7h — 19c 
Meek, Daniel — 6h — 19c 
Meek, Thomas— 3S—4h— 23c 
Meek, John — 6h — 16c 
Montgomery, Humphrey — IS — 7h — 15c 
Moorehead, Matthew — nothing 
Plunkett, John — 3h— lie 
Poesy (Posey), Thomas— 2S 
Porter, William — lh — 5c 
Ramsey, John — 4h 

Ramsey, — 4c 

Salt, Humphrey— 2h— 13c 
Shields, Robert — 4h — lie 
Stuart, Alexander — 8h— 23c 
Vahubs (Walkup), John— Sh— 23c 
Vahubs, Robert— IS— 4h— 17c 
White, Archibald — *h— 5c 
Wilson, John— IS— 8h— 17c 
Wright, John— 5h— 14c 
Wright, William— 6h— 15c 

Total: 63 white tithables, 101 slaves, 352 horses, 870 cattle, 2 carriages. 

List by Captain John Brown of the Cowpasture: 

Beall (Bell), Leonard— 4h— 10c 

Benston (Benson), Mathias — 4S — 6h — 13c 

Benston, Ervin — lh — 2c 

Benston, George — 5h — 9c 

Black, Alexander — 2h — 4c 

Black, William— 2S—5h— lie 

Bleak (Blake), Theophilus— >2h— 5c 

Bleak, George — 4h — 6c 

Brown, John — 6h — 2c 

Bums, John — 2h — 2c 

Cameron, Charles — 8h — 2c 

Carlock, Hunkrist — 5h — 15c 

Cartmill, John^8h — 9c 

Cartmill, Samuel — 3h — 12c 

Cochran, Thomas — 8S — 8h — 4c 

Cowarden, John — 3S — 7h — 3c 

Crawford, Alexander— 2S—6h— '6c 


Crawford, Nathan — 6h — 8c 

Crawford, William — lh 

Day, Samuel — 2h — 3c 

Dickey, William— 6h— 10c 

Donally, Charles— 2S—17h— 13c 

Ervin, Charles — 5h — 18c 

Feamster, Thomas— 6S—24h— 37c 

Frame, David — 6h — 19c 

Frame, Jeremiah — 3h — 10c 

Francisco, George — 8h — 19c 

Francisco, Michael — 2h — 3c 

Gillespie, Samuel — 3h — 3c 

Gillespie, Thomas— 3h— 10c 

Gillespie, John— 2S— 6h— 1 Sc 

Hicklin, Hugh— 9h— 13c 

Hughart, James— 'IS— 3h— 10c 

Irvin (Ervin), James — 5h 

Kenny, James — 4h — 4c 

Kincaid, John— IS— 9h— 28c 

Kirk, Alexander — 5h — 6c 

Knight, James — lh — 5c 

Laverty, Ralph— 8h— 10c 

Lewis, Sarah— 8S—18h— 22c 

Mais (Mayse), Joseph — lOh — 25c 

Mattinearly, James — lh — lc 

Mayhall, Stephen — 3h — 4c 

Mayhall, Samuel — lh — '3c 

McCaslin (McCausland), John— 8h— 21c 

McCaslin, Andrew — 3h 

McClung, John — 4h — 13c 

McCreery, Robert— 2S—16h— 48c 

McCreery, John— >llh — 15c 

McDannald, Samuel — 9h — 7c 

McRobert, John— llh— 28c 

Miller, Patrick— 12h— 24c 

Montgomery, John — 5h — 22c 

Montgomery, James — 6h — 4c 

Moody, Andrew — 2h — 7c 

Moore William — 5h — lie 

Moses, Samuel — 2h — 3c 

Newton, Joseph — 7h — 13c 

Rhea, William— IS— 9h— 21c 

Rhea, John— IS— 6h— 14c 

Setlington (Sitlington), John — 6h — 8c 

Setlington, Robert — 5h — 5c 

Singlenton, Andrew — 12S — 8h — 44c 


Sloan James — 6h — 14c 
Smith, John — 5h — k: 
Stout Daniel — 7h — 7c 
Stuart, Robert — 6h — 16c 
Swerengen, Van — 2h — 7c 
Thompson, Robert — 3h 
Thompson, Edward — 4h — lie 
Thompson, William — 2h — 9c 
Townsend, Taylor — 3h — 4c 
Wildridge, William— 2h— 6c 
Wilson, Samson — 3h — 2c 
Young, William— 5 h— 14c 
Young, James — lh. 

Total: 83 white tithables, 61 slaves, 451 horses, 830 horses. 

List by Captain David Gwin — Jackson's River and Back Creek. 

Bates, Ephraim — Sh — 9c 
Baxter, John— 2T— lOh— 37c 
Beans, Jacob — 2h — 5c 
Boreland, John— 3T— 5S— lOh— 20c 
Bratton, George — 3S— 9h— 12c 
Byrd, John— 17h— 15c 
Davis, John— IS— 13h— 18c 
Dennison, John — 4h — 10c 
Dixon, William — lh — 4c 
Elliott, Richard— 4h— 18c 
Ellis, James-^S— 7h— 16c 
Fitzpatrick, James — 3h — 5c 
Givens, William— IS— 14h— 15c 
Green, John — 5h — 15c 
Gregory, John — 2h — 4c 
Gwin, David— IS— 19h — 35c 
Hamilton, Alexander — IS — 6h — 18c 
Hamilton, Charles — 5h — 12c 
Hamilton, John — lOh — 12c 
Hamilton, Osborn— 9h — 12c 
Hickman, Roger — 6h — 14c 
Hughes, David — 3h — 4c 
Hutchinson, William— IS — 8h— 20c 
Johnson, Samuel — 2h — 3c 
Kelly, Oan (Owen)— 2h— 6c 
Kilpatrick, Andrew — lh — 2c 
McClain, James — 4h— 6c 
McFarland, Daniel— 5h — lie 
McLaughlin, James — 2h — 4c 
N'ail (Neil), Thomas— 2h— 5c 



Rider, William— 4h— 5c 
Robertson, William — 4h — 7c 
Slavin, William— 3h—lc 
Stout, Hezekiah — lh — 4c 
Tabley, Jewel— IS— 2h— 2c 
Townsend, Ezekiel — 2h — Sc 
Townsend, James — 2h — 7c 
Vance, Samuel— 2S— lOh— 28c 
Vance, Martha — IS — 8h— *14c 
Waid (Wade), John— 4h— 10c 
Warren, Obijah — lh — lc 
Willson, William— 4S—26h— 35c 
Willson, Stephen— 11 h^30c 
Willson, John— 13h— 24c 
Wright, Elizabeth — 4h — 9c 
Wiley, Alexander — 4h — 3c 
Wiley, Robert— 4h— 16c 

Total: 46 white tithables, 28 slaves, 293 horses, 568 cattle. 

List by George Poage — Greenbrier River: 

Anderson, Thomas 
Barker, James 
Blaik, Thomas 
Blakeman, Adam 
Blakeman, Moses 
Carson, James 
Cartmill, Thomas 
Docherty, Michael 
Drenon, Lawrence 
Drenon, Thomas 
Dunlap, Alexander 
Galford, Thomas 
Gillespie, Jacob 
Guy, (Gay), James 

Guy, John 
Hencher, John 
Hutchinson, Robert 
Jarvis, Thomas 
Lowry, Alexander 
McCarty, James 
McCollum, John 
Moore, David 
Moore, Levi 
Moore, Moses 
Offill John 
Poage, George 
Reaugh, James 

Rucker, James (1) 
Rucker, James (2) 
Sharpe, William 
Stuart, Ralph 
Sutton, Joseph 
Tackett, Christian 
Tackett, Lewis 
Tackett, Francis 
Tanner, James 
Taylor, William 
Tracewell, Edward 
Warwick;, Jacob 
Warwick, William 
Wiatt, Leonard 

Rogers, John 

The total was 43 tithables, 460 horses, 543 cattle. Jacob Warwick had 
80 horses, 88 cattle. William Warwick had 22 horses, 34 cattle. Dunlap 
had 44 horses and 24 cattle. 

List by Captain George Frazier — Cowpasture, below Botetourt 
Line— (1783): 

Beard, James — IS — 4h — 10c 
Beard, Samuel — IS — 4h — lie 
Beaty, Robert— 2T—4h— 10c 
Cairns, Michael — 2h— *15c 
Carrigan, Patrick — 3h — 9c 


Cashady, Thomas — lh 

Clendening, John — IS — 8h — 17c 

Cooper, James — 4h — lie 

Daugherty, William — 3S— 4h — 5c 

Davidson, William— 2T—3S—5h— 16c 

Fleming, James — 2S — 6h — 6c 

Fogle, Philip— 2h — 4c 

Fogle, John — 3h — 3c 

Frazier, George — IS — Sh — 13c 

Galloway, William— 8h— 26c 

Galloway, William— IS— 4h— 7c 

Galloway, Robert— 9h — 13c 

Gilliland, James — 2h — lie 

Gillispie, Simon— 2S—5h — 13c 

Gore, Michael — 3h — 4c 

Griffith, William— 7h— 10c 

Haines, Joseph — 2h — 7c 

Haines, Benjamin — 4h — 5c 

Haines, Betty — IS — 2c 

Hanley, Mary — 2S — 2h— 3c 

Hill, Robert— 3 S— 11 h— 20c 

Hughes, Aaron — 5h — 9c 

Insminger, John — 2h — 5c 

Insminger, John Jr. — lh 

Lingnecker, Mary — 2h — 4c 

Maze, William— 5h — 15c 

Maze, Richard— 2S — 6h— 13c 

McCoIgan. Edward— 2T— IS— 6h— lie 

McKay, Archibald— lc 

McMurray, William^— IS — 8h— 22c 

Miller, Henry— 2h — 3c 

Muldrough, Jean — 2h — 2c 

Muldrough, Hugh— 7h — 21c 

Muldrough, William — 4h— 3c 

Musson, Jean — 2h — 2c 

Nighswinger, John — 5h — lie 

Roberts, Abel — 2h — 6c 

Roop, Nicholas — 2h — 4c 

Scott, James, Sr. — 2T— IS— 9h — 9c 

Scott, James, Jr.— 5h-^7c 

Shanklin, Richard — 8h — 7c 

Shaver, Sebastian— 2T—2S—1 1 h— 21c 

vSimpson, James — 3S — 5h— '17c 

Stewart, James — 2h — 9c 

Thompson, Joseph — 2h — 2c 

Vaught, Casper— 2h— 12c 


Walker, James — 2h — 7c 
Wooley, William— 2T— 9h— 12c 

Total: 23 tithables, 10 slaves, 102 horses, 212 cattle. 

List by Captain John Bollar — Jackson's River, below Botetourt 
Line— (1783): 

Armstrong, James — 6h 

Armstrong, Robert — llh — lie 

Barbery, Thomas — 3h — 3c 

Barratt, William — nothing 

Boiler, John 

Bullitt, Cuthbert— 3S— 8h^24c 

Carpenter, Jeremiah — 5h — 6c 

Clark, Joseph — 2h — 6c 

Corder, William — lc 

Cottle, Benjamin — lh — 2c 

Craig, James — 3h — 9c 

Davis, William — lh — 3a 

Davis, James — 3c 

Dean, John— 8 S— llh— 28c 

Doylton, William — nothing 

Edwards, Jeremiah — 5h — 4-c 

Elliott, James— 7h — 20c 
Fitzpatrick, John — nothing 

Fitzpatrick, Thomas — nothing 
Harvie, Thomas — lh 
Jones, Henry — 2h — 3c 
Jones, John — lh — 3c 
Jones, John — 3h 
Kender, Peter — nothing 
Kimberlane, Adam — k 7h — 5c 
Kincade, Andrew — 7h — 17c 
Kincade, William — 3h — 9c 
Lilley, William — 3h — 4-c 
Mann, Jean— IS— 8h— 10c 
Mann, Moses — 2h — 9c 
Mann, Moses — 7h — 2c 
Mann, Esau — 3h — 3c 
Massie, Thomas — 7S — 4-lh — 30c 
McCalister, Thomas— IS— 8h-Jllc 
McCalister, James — 2T— 7h — Sc 
McCalister, Garrett — lh 
McClintoch, William,— 6h— 21c 
McClintock, William — Sh — Sc 
McClintock, Robert — +h — 7c 



McDuff, John— 3h— Sc 

McGart, John— 3h— lie 

Milholland, Thomas — nothing 

Morren (Morris?), Bernard — 3h — 4-c 

Morris, Richard— 22h— 18c 

Price, Evan — 3h 

Price, Zachariah — lh — lc 

Robinson, James — '3S — Sh — 17c 

Robinson, James — 5h — 5c 

Robinson, William — 3h — 7c 

Scott, John — 5h — 6c 

Scott, James — lh — 3c 

Slath, John— lh 

Smith, William — 4-h— lie 

Sprovvl, William — 4h — 7c 

Thompson, Martha — lh — 3c 

Trotter, Ezekiel — 3h — 3c 

Wall, Thomas — lh — 5c 

Wall, Thomas — lh — '5c 

Ward, William— lh— 2c 

Wright, Peter— 2S— lOh— 38c 

Total: 29 tithables, 7 slaves, 130 horses, 209 cattle. 

Heads of Families in 1791 
First District — Samuel Vance, Assessor. 

Alexander, John 
Anderson, John 
Anderson, Thomas 
Arskin (Erskine), John 
Barnet, Thomas 
Baxter, John 
Beathe, Joseph 
Benson, Mathias, Sr. 
Benson, Mathias, Jr. 
Benson, George 
Benson, Ervvin 
Berry, John (Captain) 
Bevins, Thomas 
Black, William 
Blacke, Samuel 
Blaik, James 
Botkin, James 
Botkin, Thomas 
Bmirland, Andrew 
Boyle s, David 

Bradshaw, John 
Brinkley, John ' 
Brock, Thomas 
Brown, Joseph 

Carlile, Robert of Robert 
Carlile, James 
Carlile, Rachel 
Carpenter, Joseph 

Brown, John (Captain) Cartright, Jesse 
Buck, Charles Chapman, George 

Burne (Burns), Petter Chesnut, Sophia (w id- 
Burner, Abraham ow) 
Burns, John Cleek, Jacob 
Byrd, John (Back Creek) Coberly, Thomas 
Byrd, John (J a c k s o n'sCochran, David 

River) Collins, John 

Byrd, Thomas Conell, William 

Byrd, Jacob Cook, Stephen 

Cailer, Mathias Court (McCourt), James 

Cameron, Charles (Colo-Cowardin, John 

nel) Crane, John 

Campble, William Crawford, Nathan 

Carlile, John Crawford, William 

Carlile, Robert of JohnCrump, John 



Cutlip, George 

Davis, William le) 

Davis, James Givens, William 

Deever, John Godard, John 

Denison, Mary (widow) Graham, Christopher 

Dickey, William Graham, Felix 

Dickenson, John (Colo-Grahami, William 

nel) Graves, Richard 

Dilly, John Green, William 

Dinwoody, W i 1 1 i a mGregory, Isaac 
(Captain) Gregory, Joseph 

Diverix, John 

Dixon, William Griffen, Abner 

Dizard, William Gum, Ebram 

Donoly, Charles Gum, John 

Donoly, Mary, (widow) Gwin, David 
Donovan, Peter Gwin, Joseph 

Donovan, Charles Hamilton, James 

Dougherty, Michael 

Drinen, Thomas Hamilton, Osborn 

Duffill (Duffield), John Handly, James 
Edde, John (constable) Harris, Ebram 
Elliott, John Hicklin, Thomas 

Erwin, Gerard (Jared) Hicklin, James (Capt.) 
Erwin, John of Jared Hicklin, John 

Erwin, John 
Erwin, Charles 
Erwin, James 
Evins, Ebram 
Femster, Thomas 
Fisher, William 
Fletcher, Robert 
Fletcher, William 
Forbes, Alexander 
Fox, Jane ( ?) 
Frame, David 
Fuller, William 

Fulks, (Fultz) Nicholas Ingram, Job 

Gabbart, John 
Galford, John 
Garnett, Absolam 
Gates, David 
Gillespie, Jacob 
Gillespie, Samuel 
Gillespie, William 
Gillespie, John 

Givens, Robert (constab-Kelso, James 
Kime, Henry 
Kinkaide, John 
Kinkaide, James 
Kinkaide, Joseph 
Knight, James (consta- 
Knox, Jeremiah 
Lafferty, Ralph 
Layton, Thomas 
Lewis, John, Esq. 
Gregory, Mary (widow) Lewis, Andrew 

Lewis, Margaret (wid- 
Leytch (Leach), John 
Lockridge, James 
Lockridge, William 
Lockridge, Jean (widow) 
Hamilton, Alexander, Jr. Lowney, Alexander 
Lunsford, Reuben/^ 
Matheny, Archibald 
Matheny, Luke 
Mathews, Sampson (Col- 
May (Mayse) William 
Mayze, Joseph 
Mayze, Isaac 
Mayze, Rebecca 
McCab (?), John 
McCal lister, John 
McCartney, Andrew 
McCarty, Elijah 
McCarty, John 
McCashlin (McCaus- 

Iand), John 
McCashlin, John (2) 
McCashlin, Andrew 
McClung, John 
McCollom, Daniel 
McCollom, John 
McDonald, John 
McDonald, Samuel 
McGlaughlin, Hugh 
McGalughlin, Hugh 

McGlaughlin, John 

Hickman, Roger 
Hinkle, Isaac 
Hively, Jacob 
Houchon, Moses 
Houchon, William 
Hubbard, Petter 
Hughart, James, Sr. 
Hughart, James, Jr. 
Hughart, John 
Hutcheson, James 
Hutcheson, Jacob 
Ingram, Ebram 

Irick, Coonrod 
Johns, Isaac (1) 
Johns, Isaac (2) 
Johns, William 
Johnson, Bartholemew 
Kelly, Hugh 
Kelly, Owen 
Kelly, Thomas 



McGlaughlin, John 

McGlaughlin, James 

McGlaughlin, Daniel 

McGoverny, James 

McLey, John 

Miles, George 

Miller, Charles 

Miller, James 

Miller, Patrick 

Miller, John 

Montgomery, John 

Moor, William 

Moor, John 

Moor, Levi, Sr. (consta- 

Moore, John, (Pennsyl- 

Moore, Mary (widow) 

Moore, Moses, Sr. 

Moore, Moses, Jr. 

Moore, Robert 

Moore, George 

Moore, Levi, Jr. 

Morison, Hugh 

Mullinix, John 

Munroe, Daniel 

Neel, John 

Neel, William 

Nicholas, Lewis 

Nicholas, William 

Nicholas, Zephiniah 

Notingham, William 

Odle, Sylvanus 

Ofriel, Jeremiah 

Peebles, John 

Phelps, Isaac 

Poage, George 

Poage, James 

Pullins, Loufty (Loftus) 

There was a total 
studs, ;md 4 "carriage 

Pullins, John 
Pullins, Jonathan 
Pullins, Samuel 
Ray, Joseph 
Reah, John 
Reah, William 
Redman, Samuel 
Rian, George 
Richardson, Robert 
Rider, William 
Roberts, John W. 
Robinson, John (Captain) 
Robinson, Thomas (con- 
Robinson, John 
Robinson, Petter 
Robey, Patrick 
Rodgers, John 
Rose, Jesse 
Ruckman, David 
Ruckman, Thomas 
Russell, John 
Scott, Henry 
Sharp, William 
Shaw, George 
Shrewsbury, Samuel, Esq. 
Sigafoos, Petter 
Sitlintown, John 
Slavin, Isaiah 
Slavin, William 
Slavin, John, Sr. 
Slavin, John, Jr. 
Slone, Jenny (widow) 
Smith, Joseph 
Stephenson, James 
Stiff, John 
Stuart, Robert 
Stuart, James of Robert 
Stuart, William 

Stuart, Edward 
Stuart, John 

Stuart, James (constable) 
Sybert, Nicholas 
Swearingham, Van 
Tait, David 
Taylor, William 
Townsend, Ezekiel 
Townsend, Robert 
Townsend, Solomon 
Turner, Edward 
Tygart, Joshuah 
Tygart, Samuel 
Vance, Samuel, Esq. 
Viers, Gideon 
Waide, Leonard 
Walgrave, Francis 
Wall, Charles 
Wallace, Thomas 
Walsh, Edward 
Wanless, Stephen 
Warick, Jacob, Esq. 
Warick, John 
Warick, William 
Waring, Abijah 
Watson, Samuel 
Webb, John 
White, Valentine 
Whitman, George 
Wiley, Alexander 
Wiley, Robert, Sr. 
Wiley, Robert, Jr. 
Willoughbv, Benjamin 
Wilson, John Esq. 
Wilson, Stephen 
Wilson, William 
Winder, James 
Winder, John 
Wooden, Bill 

of 476 tithables, 132 slaves, 1376 horses, 6 

Second District — John Oliver, Assessor 
Alderman, Ezekl Alford, Talithain Armstrong, Robert 



Armstrong, Robert, Jr. 
Armstrong, Isaac 
Armstrong, James 
Barker, Thomas 
Barkly, James 
Barkly, Joshua 
Barnett, Robert 
Barnett, William 
Baty, Andrew 
Bently, Rosanna 
Boiler, John 
Brindly, James, Sr. 
Brindly, James, Jr. 
Brindly, William 
Buckly, James 
Buckly, Joshua 
Bumgardner, Jacob 
Byrnsides, John — 
Calaghan, Dennis 
Casebolt, John 
Casebolt, Henry 
Clarke, Christopher 
Cochran, Thomas 
Cole, Richard 
Cotton Benjamin 
Crawford, William 
David, Thomas 
Davis, James 
Davis, Daniel 
Davis, John 
Davis, Richard 
Day, Joseph 
Dean, John, Esq. 
Deene, John 
Dodridge, William 
Douglas, John 
Edmanson, James 
Edwards, Jeremiah 
Erwin, James 
Erwin, John (river) 
Ewin, James 
Ewin, Joshua 
Ewin, William 
Evans, Griffith 
Evins, Aaron 
Fisher, Philip 

Fitzpatrick, Daniel 
Fitzpatrick, John 
Foster, Luke 
Fry, Jacob 
Gibson, John 
Gilliland, Samuel 
Gilliand, Catherine 
Grattan, David 
Greenlee, James 
Griffith, William 
Hanceford, William 
Hannah, David 
Javins, Daniel 
Johnson, John 
Johnson, Samuel 
Jones, John 
Jones, John W. 
Keckley, Valentine 
Kenison, Charles 
Kenison, David 
Kenison, Nathaniel 
Kinkead, John 
Kinkead, Robert 
Kinkead, William 
Knox, William 
Kuykendall, Simon 
Lewis, James 
Linager, Isaac 
Linch, John 
Lonsdale, William 
Mann, James 
Mann, Jane 
Massingbird, George 
Maze, Richard 
Maze, William 
McClintick, Alexander 
McClintick, Robert 
McClintick William 
McClintick, Alice (wid- 
McCollister, James 
McCollister, Moses 
McCollister, Richard 
McDonald, Hugh 
McDuff, John 

McKenny, Samuel 
McNeil, Abraham 
McNeil, John 
McNeil, Thomas 
Milholland, Thomas 
Mitchel, Robert 
Morris, John 
Morrison, James 
Mourning, Bernett 
Nales, Stephen 
Nants, (Nance), James 
Nants, Lydia 
Oldram, William 
Oliver, Daniel 
Oliver, Thomas 
Peacock, David 
Paine William 
Parker, Thomas 
Poage, William 
Powel, Caleb 
Power, Elizabeth 
Prince, Evan 
Reah, Robert 
Reid, James 
Richards, John 
Robinson, William, Sr. 
Robinson, William 
Robinson, James, Esq. 
Robinson, James 
Robuck, James 
Rupe, Bernett 
Rupe, Mary 
Salisburg, William 
Salmon, Jacob 
Saxton, William 
Scott, James 
Scott, John 
Scott, Robert 
Sitlington, Robert 
Smith, William 
Smith, John 
Smith, Lily 
Smith, Sarah 
Stinson, (Stevenson), Jas. 
Stinson, James, Jr. 
Stinson, David 



Sprowl, Alexander 
Sprowl, John 
Stuart, Henry 
Surber, Henry 
Swearingen, Samuel 
Switcher, John 

Syms, James 
Thompson, Abrm 
Thompson, Joseph 
Thompson, John 
Thompson, William 

Trotter, Ezekl 
Waddle, Alexr 
Walker, Charles 
Wilson, Robert 
Wyatt, Reuben 

There was a total of 224 tithables, 44 slaves, 664 horses, and 5 

Grand total for Greater Bath: Tithables, 790; slaves, 176; 
horses, 2040 ; studs, 1 1 ; carriage wheels, 4. 


The surnames below are grouped according to color, and are taken 
from the books of the county treasurer, as the list stood, June 1, 1913. 
The abbreviations are these: W for Williamsville District, M for 
Miilboro, WS for Warm Springs, and C for Cedar Creek. Where 
a figure follows such abbreviation, it indicates the number of taxable 
individuals bearing the same surname. Where no figure is given, 
there was only one such person. 


Adams — M 
Agnew— WS, 2 
Ailstock — M, 6 
Alphin— C 
Anderson — WS, 
Ayers — C 
Baldwin— WS 
Bartley — M 
Barksdale — M 
Beard— WS 
Beckner — C 
Bell— C 
Bird— W— WS 
Black— M—C 
Blakey— C 
Blankenship — C 
Bogan— WS, 4 
Boleyn— C 
Bonner— WS, 10 
p„,,ki n _W_c 
Bovvers — C, 2 
Bowman — M, 2 

Bradley— M—C 

Bradshaw — W 

Bragg— C 

Branscome — C 

Bratton— M, 3— WS, 4 

Bright— WS, 3— M 


Brink ley— W, 4— C 

Brockway — M 

Brooks— M, 2 

Brown — M 

Bulger — M 

Burger — C 

Burns— W, 10— WS, 3— C, 2 

Bussard— 'WS— C 

Butler— W, 3 

Byrd— WS 

Callahan — C 

Cameron— W — C 

Campbell— W, 3— WS— C, 2 

Canthorn — M 

Carpenter— W, 6— C, 4 



Carroll— WS 
Cash— WS 

Cauley— WS, 6— M— C, 4 
Challender— C, 2 
Chaplin— C, 3 
Chapman — C 
Chestnut— WS, 2 
Clark-AV, 3 
Clarkson— M, 2— C 
Cleek— M— WS, 6— C, 3 
Cobb— WS 
Connor — C, 3 
Corbett— WS, 2 
Cosby— C 
Coursey — W, 2 
Crawford— W 
Criser— M— WS, 5— C 
Crummett— WS 
Curry— W, 3— WS, 4 
Curtis— M—C 
Daggy — M, 2 
Daniel — M 
Darnell— 'M 
Davenny — M 
Davenport — M 
Davidson — M 
Deaner — C 
Deeds — M, 6 
Dempsey — M 
Dickenson— »M, 2 
Dineen — C 
Douglass — M, 3 
Doyle— WS 
Driscoll— C, 2 
Dudley— C, 3 
Dunn— C 
Durham — M, 2 
Eagle— W 
Eakle— WS, 2 
Ebert— C 
Edenton — 'C 
Edmondson — M, 2 
Elliot— WS 
Ervine — W, 2 
Erwin— WS 
Eskins— WS 

Estes — M 
Faircloth— W 
Fertig— M— C 
Fisher— C 
Fitzgerald — C 
Fleishman — C 
Ford— C 
Foster— WS 
Fountaine — C 
Foutz— WS 
Fox— WS, 2 
Fuller— C 
Gardner — W 
Garing— WS 
Garland — M 
George — l WS 
Getty— C 
Gillespie— C, 2 
Gillett-^WS, 5 
Gillock— M 
Ginger— WS, 3 
Goode— M 
Grady — M 
Graham — W 
Graybeal— WS 
Greaver — C 
Green— M—C— WS 
Grinsted — C 
Grose — C, 6 
Grose— C, 6 
Gum— WS, 3— C 
Gunton — C 
Guy— C 

Gwin— WS, 4— C, 2 
Hahn— C 
Hall— W— C 
Halterman — W 
Hamilton— WS, 2— C 
Hammack — C ' 
Harruff— W— M, 2 
Harper — C, 2 
Harris — M 
Harrison — C 
Hawkins — M 
Hayslett— 'M 
Hefner— WS, 2 



Helminstoller — C 

Helms— WS 

Hepler— M, 3 

Herman — C 

Hevener — W — C 

Hicklin— W, 2 

Hickman— M, 2— WS 

Hicks^WS, 2 

Hillman— C 

Hiner— WS 

Hite— W 

Hively— WS 

Hodge— W, 7— M— WS, 6— C, 2 

Holland— M 

Holmes— W 

Hoover^WS— C, 10 

Hopkins — C, 2 

Hornberger — C 

Jack— W— M 

Jackson — W, 6 — C, 2 

Jeffrey — C 

Johnson — M — C, 7 

Jones — WS 

Jordan— 'W 

Karr — M 

Kay— WS 

Kayton — C 

Keller— M 

Kelley— W— WS— C 

Kellison— WS, 2 

Kelso— W 

Kenney — W, 2 
-Keyser->WS— C, 10 

Kimberlin — C 

Kincaid— W, 2— M— C 

King— M— C 

Kirby— M 

Knittel — C 

Kuhn— M 

Lair— M 

Lamb— 'C 

Landes— M— WS— C, 2 

I.aRue— W, 2— WS— C 

Law— W— WS, 2— C, 2 

Lawrence — M, 2 

Layman — C, 2 

Leach— C 
Lemon — M 
Lewis — W 
Lightner— WS, 3 
Lindsay— WS, 2 
Lininger — C 
Linkswiler — M 
Liptrap — W 
Little— C 

Loan-W, 5— M, 5 
Lockridge— W, 2— WS, 4 
Loving — C, 3 
Lowe— WS 
Lowman — M, 3 — C 
Lyle— M, 8 
Mackey— W, 3 
Madison — M 
Manasse — C 
Mann — WS, 2 
Marshall— W, 7— C 
Matheny — M, 4 
Mathews — C 
May— M, 2— C 
Mayse — W, 3 
McAllister— WS, 4— C, 3 
McClintic— W— WS— C, 3 
McClung— W, 3 
McCormick— W— M, 2 
McCoy— M, 2 
McCray— C, 2 
McCune— W 
McDannald— WS 
McDonald— WS 
McElyee — C, 4 
McFadden— WS— C, 2 
McGowan — C 
McGuffin— WS, 2 
McLaughlin — M, 2 — C, 4 
McMansmay — WS, 2 
McMuIlen— C 
McNeil— W 
Mede— 'C 

Miller— W, 2— M, 3— WS 
Mines— WS, 3 
Mustoe — C 




Neff— W— M, 3 

Newcomer — C 

Newman — C 

No ff singer — M 

Northern — 'C 

Nutty— C 

Oden— C 

O'Farrell— WS, 2— C 

O'Mara— C 

Page— W 

Pateson — W 

Payne— WS, 2— C, 2 

Peery— C 

Pelter— J M 

Peters— M, 2 

Phillips— MC 

Plecker— W 

Pole— C, 4 

Porter— M—C 

Powers — C 

Preston — W 

Pritt— W— WS, 4— C 

Puffenberger— W— WS, 2 

Putnam — M, 3 

Rader— W 

Ramsey — M 

Ratliff— W 

Reed— WS 

Revercomb — W, 4— »C 

Reynolds — M 

Rhea— M, 5 

Rice— C 

Richards — C 

Richardson — C, 3 

Richie— C 

Rider— WS, 3— C 

Riley— M—WS 

Roberts— W, 5 

Robertson — W — M 

Robinson— W— M—WS, 2— C, 2 

Rodgers— W, 3— WS, 3 

Rorke— WS 

Rose— WS 

Ross— W, 2— M 

Rosser — W 

Rowe— W— M— WS 

Pucker — M 

Rule— W 

Rush— WS 

Rusmisell— W, 2 

Rutherford— C 

Ryder— W 

Schosleo — W 

Scott— C 

Shaffer— WS, 2 

Shanks— W, 3— M 

Sharp— WS, 2— C 

Shaw— C 

Sheesley — WS 

Sheffer— M 

Ghelton— WS 

Showalter — WS 

Simmons — W — M, 2 

Simpson — M, 3 

Sively— WS 

Slosser — M 

Smith— W, 2— M—WS— C, 

Snead— C, 2 

Snider— WS 

Snyder— C, 2 

Snodgrass — WS, 2 

Sprouse — C, 2 

Stephenson— W— M—WS, 2 

Sterrett — C 

Sterry— C 

Stimson — C 

Stinespring — C 

Stombeck — M 

Swadley— W, 2 

Swartz— WS— C, 2 

Swearingen — W, 3 — M 

Sweet— C, 2 

Taliaferro — C 

Tankersley — W 

Taylor— W, 2 

Terrell— W, 2—C, 2 

Thacker — C 

Thomas— M—WS, 2— C, 6 

Thompson — M, 3 — C, 3 

Tidd— C 

Todd— C 

Tomblin — C 



Townson — C 
Trainor — W 
Trostle— WS 
Tucker— C 
Toiler— C 
Vance — C 

Van Derveer — M, 2 
Van Lear — M 
Venable— WS 
Vees — M, 4 
Vines— WS 
Wade— W, 2— M 
Wallace— W, 2 
Wall in— C 
Walton— C, 2 
Wanless— W, 3 
Warren— M—C, 2 

Warwick— W—WS, 3 

Watson— M—C 

Weaver — C 

Webb— WS 

White— M, 2 

Wilfong— WS 

Wiley— WS 

Wilkenson— WS, 2 

Williams— W— »M, 2— C, 4 

Wilson — M 

Wine— WS 

Wiseman — W, 2 

Withrow — M, 3 

Wood— M, 3 

Woodzell— W— M— WS, 2— C 

Wright— M—C 

Zimmerman — WS, 3 — M 



f| HIS list of marriages that are more or less associated with 
Bath history is compiled chiefly from the marriage bonds 
on record at Warm Springs. Names in parentheses are 
those of consorts. The dates are those of the bonds. 
Where a parent is mentioned it is nearly always because the son or 
the daughter was under age at the time. It is to be remembered 
that a bond, like a license at the present time, was not invariably 
followed by a marriage. 

Previous to 1852, the applicant for a marriage permit in Vir- 
ginia had to execute a bond in the office of the county clerk. The pur- 
pose of the bond was to make the person answerable for any infrac- 
tion of the law that might occur. The bond was likewise a license. 
It was signed by the groom and by one other person, usually the 
prospective father-in-law. When an applicant for matrimony was 
under age the consent of the parent was filed with the bond. But 
occasionally the bride wrote the consent herself. Sometimes the se- 
curity on a bond was tendered in a quite informal manner, as will 
appear in the letter below. A consent as well as a bond had to be 
witnessed by two persons. 

Below are given a letter, which speaks for itself, and a specimen 
consent : 

Hot Springs May the 14th 1793 

Sr this is to Certify that I have no objecksons agenst Mr. Jas 
Henry and my Daughter Nancy a getting Married therefore if youl 
Be pleased to Grant Mr. Henry License for the Purpose youl oblige 
yours Sir Martha Jevons 

Friend White, 

Mr. George Norton Came to me this day and told me 
he was so farr on the Road to you for License to get Married, and he 
Complains that he hase no Money to pay you with, if it is no disad- 
vantage for you to lay out of the Money, I will see you paid in a 


short time, and likewise I will be answerable for all damages in givinj 
him the License I am Sir yr Humble Servant 

James Kelso 
June 26, 1793 

1. Armstrong, John (Polly Crawford) — 1790 

2. Armstrong, John (Jane Kincaid of Robert) — 1797 

3. Armstrong, Archibald (Nancy Scott) — 1797 

4. Baxter, William (Margaret Toms) —1788 

5. Beard, Robert (Sarah Mitchell of James) — 1785 

6. Berry, John (Janet Given) — 1790 

7. Betty (Beaty), Andrew (Agnes Sitlington of John) — 1786 

8. Black, William ( )— 1764 

9. Black, Alexander (Mary Ann Ham) — 1793 

10. Black, George (Elizabeth Miller of Patrick)— 1796 

11. Bourland, William (Sarah Dean — or Mary?) — 1786 

12. ^ratton, James ( ) — 1774 

13. Bratton, Adam (Elizabeth Feamster of Thomas) — 1788 

14. Bratton David (ipres Kirk .if John)— 1^99 

15. Brown, Josiah (Jane Waddell)— 1801 

16. Burns, Peter (Jane Miller)— 1789 

17. Burns, John (Margaret Monroe) — 1801 

18. Burns, Polly (James McCourt)— '1792 

19. Burns, Eva (John Miller)— 1791 

20. Burnside, Alexander (Elizabeth Gilliland of John) — 1800 

21. Carlile, John ( )— 1762 

22. Callison, Mary of Daniel (Benjamin Delany) — 1801 

23. Clark, Samuel (Jane Mathews of Sampson) — 1790 

24. Cleek, Elizabeth (Daniel McGlaughlin of John)— 1795 

25. Cleek, Sophia (William Hartman)— '1801 

26. Cleek, Margaret, (Benjamin Potts) — 1792 

27. Coffey, Margaret of James (John McWilliams)— 1781 

28. Corbett, Mary of Samuel (Joseph Chestnut)— 1794 

29. Crawford, William (Martha Cooper)— 1786 

30. Crawford, James (Mary — )— 1786 

31. Crow, Thomas (Nancy Donally of Charles) — 1789 

32. Davis, James (Ann Estill)— 1786 

33. Dean, John ( )— 1758 

34. Dean, Sarah (James Venable) — 1797 

35. Dean, Mary (Samuel Depew) — 1787 

36. Dickenson, Martha (John Shrewsbury) — 1793 

37. Dickenson, Nancy (Joseph Kincaid) — 1795 

38. Donally, Andrew ( )— 1766 

39. Donally, Catharine (James Ward)— 1800 

40. Daugherty, William (Mary Bridge)— 1786 


41. Daugherty, Isabella (William Nicholas) — 1796 

42. Elliot, Archibald (Sarah Clark)— 1748 

43. Elliott, Abraham (Nancy) Campbell)— 1786 

44. Elliott, Wiliam (Agnes McCampbell)— 1788 

45. Estill, Solomon ( . — ) — 1773 

46. Ewing, John S. (Rebecca Cackley)— 1801 

47. Ewing, William (Mary Taylor)— 1791 

48. Ewing, Jean (Moses Moore) — 1786 

49. Feamster, William ( )— 1763 

50. Fitzpatrick, Mary (John Jones)— '1792 

51. Frame, Elizabeth (John Duffield)— 1790 

52. Frame, Mary (George Roebuck) — 1795 

53. Frame, John (Martha Daugherty of Michael) — 1798 

54. Francisco, John (Eizabeth S. Lewis) — 1798 

55. Gay, Thomas (Mary Swearingen) — 1791 t 

56. Gay, Samuel (Margaret Mustoe) — 1799 

57. Gillespie, Mary (Samuel Blake)— 1792 

58. Gillespie, Rachel of Jacob (John Sutton) — 1795 

59. Gillespie, John (Comfort Griffith)— 1798 

60. Gillespie, James (Elizabeth Gillespie of Simon and Rebecca) — 1779 

61. Gillespie, Robert (Mary Galloway) — 1791 

62. Gillespie, William (Margaret Eddy)— 1792 

63. Given, William (Agnes Bratton) — 1764 

64. Given, Samuel (Elizabeth Robertson) — 1785 

65. Given, William (Rebecca Kenny of Matthew) — 1789 

66. Given, Adam (Nancy McGuffin) — 1797 

67. Given, Isabella of Agnes (Isaac Duffield) — 1795 

68. Graham, Sarah (James Waddell)— 1798 

69. Graham, James ( ') — 1763 

70. Graham, Lancelot ( )— 1763 

71. Gregory, David of Mary (Margaret Warrick) — 1786 

72. Gregory, Elizabeth (John Robinson)— 1800 

73. Gregory, Isaac (Hannah Given) — '1790 

74. Griffith, Mary (Peter Flack)— 1793 

75. Gwin, David (Violet Crawford of William)— 1790 

76. Gwin, James (Jane Hicklin of John) — 1792 

77. Gwin, Robert (Ursula Robinson of Peter) — 1793 

78. Gwin, ( )— 1765 

79. Gwin, Robert (Margaret Elliott of William)— 1785 

80. Hall, James (Nancy Hicklin of Thomas)— 1785 

81. Hall, Jane (Robert Hutchinson)— 1788 

82. Hamilton, James (Rachel Vance of Samuel) — 1786 

83. Hodge, William (Martha Benson of George) — 1800 

84. Hughart, Thomas ( )— 1761 

85. Hughart, Mary Elstock of Joseph of Louisa County) — 1799 

86. Hughart, James (Nancy Thomas) — 1792 


87. Hughart, Jane of James (Edward McGlaughlin) — 1796 

88. Jackson, Rhoda (Edward Morris) — 1795 

89. Jackson, H . (John Townsend) — 1786 

90. Jackson, Elizabeth (David Caruthers)— "1786 

91. Kelly, M a ry (Patrick McGraw)— 1798 

92. Kelly, James (Margaret Sloan) — 1796 

93. Kelso, James (Elizabeth Sitlington) — 1789 

94. Kincaid, Andrew (Ann Poage) — 1785 

95. Kincaid, David (Jennie Lockridge of Robert) — 1S00 

96. Kincaid, Ferdinand (Margaret Fulton of James) — 1799 

97. Kincaid, James (Jane Curry) — 1791 

98. Kincaid, James (Margaret Wiatt) — 1793 

99. Kincaid, John (Mary Dinwiddie) — 1786 

100. Kirk, Robert (Martha Moffett)— 1785 

101. Knox, Alice (Francis A. Dubois)— 1801 

102. Knox, Elisha (Nancy Parker)— 1801 

103. Knox, John (Sarah Robinson of Joseph) — 1793 

104. Knox, William (Sarah Acklin of Green-Craig County)— 1792 

105. La Rue, Abraham (Sarah Lower)— 1792 

106. Laverty, Ralph ( )— 4764 

107. Lewis, Charles (Sarah Murray)— 1762 

108. Lewis, Charles (Ann Honce)— 1792 

109. Lewis, John ( ) — '1793 

110. Lewis, John (Rachel Miller)— 1789 

111. Liptrap, Isaac (Mary Bright) — 1785 

112. Mann, Thomas (Elizabeth Armstrong of Robert)— 1792 

113. Marshall, Robert (Jean Vance)— 1792 

114. Mayse, Isaac (Ruth Hicklin of Thomas) — 1788 

115. Mayse, Joseph (Agnes Hicklin of Hugh) — 1787 

116. Mayse, Nancy (George Shaw) — 1787 

117. Mayse, Richard ( )— 1760 

118. Mayse, Robert (Margaret McClenahan)— 1790 

119. McAvoy, Robert (Sarah Burns)— 1798 

120. McCallister, Garnett (Ann Sprowl)— 1792 

121. McCallister, John (Mary Kincaid)— 1800 

122. McCartney, Lucy (Zachariah Barnett)— 1792 

123. McCarty, Timothy (Jane Waugh)— 1800 

124. McCausland, Mary (Samson Sawyer) — 1790 

125. McClintic, Jane of Robert (James Brown)— 1800 

126. McClintic, Samuel (Susanna King of Adam)— 1793 

127. McClung, John (Mary Stuart of Benjamin)— 1788 

128. McClung, John, Jr., (Jane McClung)— 1793 

129. McClung, Elizabeth of Joseph (John Moore) — 1793 

130. McClung, Margaret (James Musson) — '1797 

131. McCreery, John (Martha )— 1762 

132. McCreery, Robert (Mary )— 1764 


133. McCreery, John ( )— »1771 

134. McCreery, John of Robert (Margaret Black of William) — 1787 

135. McMullen, Edward ( )— 1759 

136. WcWhorter, David (Barzillai McCorkle of Robert)— '1800 

137. Means, High (Nancy Armstrong of Robert) — 1785 

138. Milhollen, Sarah (Jeremiah Simms) — 1800 

139. Miller, Patrick ( )— 1785 

140. Milligan, John (Isabella Doak) — 1786 

141. Montgomery, James ( ) — 1765 

142. Montgomery, John ( ) — 1753 

143. Montgomery, John (Sarah Hicklin) — 1785 
144 Morris, Richard (— ' )— 1761 

145. Morris, Frances (Abraham Garnett) — 1794 

146. Payne, Lewis (Nancy Davis) — 1794 

1^147. Porter, Amelia (Nimrod Bogges — Boggs?) — 1801 

148. Porter, James (Catharine Hughes) — 1795 

149. Porter, Nancy (Robert Nutt) — 1800 

150. Ramsey, Charles (Polly Mounts)— 1801 

151. Ramsey, William (Sarah Fulton)— 1794 

152. Rhea, Elizabeth (Tolliver Wright)— 1797 

153. Rhea, James (Margaret Still)— 1800 

154. Rhea, Robert (Catherine Bailor)— '1798 

155. Ross, John (Mary Harvey Davis) — 1795 

156. Ross, James (Elizabeth Griffin of William)— 1795 

157. Scott, Hugh (Betsy Bell)— 1800 

158. Smith, Barbara of William (Joseph Warman) — 1794 

159. Smith, James (Elizabeth Wilson of Robert) — 1794 
^160. Smith, John (Sarah Moore of Levi and Susanna) — 1794 

161. Sprowl, William ( ')— 1757 

162. Stephenson, David (Mary Davis) — 1783 

163. Stephenson, James (Margaret Smith) — 1796 

164. Stephenson, Robert (Jane Smith of John) — 1798 

165. Stephenson, Susanna (William Hughes) — 1801 

166. Stewart, Isaiah (Martha Stewart) — 1786 

167. Stuart, Henry (Sarah Moore) — 1791 

168. Stuart, James (Nancy Moore) — '1794 

169. Swearingen, Alexander (Sarah Layne) — 1800 

170. Swearingen, Samuel (Hannah Scott) — 1798 

171. Tharp, Daniel (Margaret Barkley)— 1795 

172. Thompson, Hannah (Peyton Walker) — 1794 

173. Thompson, Thomas (Jean McClung) — 1795 

174. Trotter, Christopher (Prepare McClintic of William)— 1786 

175. Usher, Ann of Robert (Hugh Donaho)— 1795 

176. Usher, Jean of Robert (Clements Graham) — 1791 

177. Usher, James (Catherine Whitesides) — 1788 

178. Vance, Samuel ( ' )— 1763 



Vance, Mary of James (William Bridger) — 1795 
Waddell, Isabella of Alexander (James Boggs)— 1797 
Wallace, Matthew (Sarah Brown)— '1801 
Ward, James (Catharine Donally)— 1800 

Warwick, John ( )— 1771 

Warwick, John (Mary Poage) — 1794 

185. Warwick, Margaret (Adam See) — 1794 

186. Wilson, John ( )— 1769 

Wilson, George (Elizabeth McCreery) — 1750 
Wilson, Jane (Cornelius Vanosdale) — 1785 
Wooton, William (Jane Gilliland)— 1793 


Donally— 31, 182 



Acklin— 104 
Armstrong— '112, 137 
Bailor— 154 
Barkley— 171 
Barnett— 122 
Bell— 157 
Benson — 83 
Black— 134 
Blake— 57 
Boggess — 147 
Boggs— 180 
Bratton — 63 
Bridge— 40 
Bridger— 179 
Bright— 111 
Brown— 125, 181 

Burns— 119 

Cackley — 46 


Caruthers— 90 

Chestnut— 28 

Cooper— 29 

Crawford— 1, 75 

Curry— 97 

Daugherty — 53 

Davis— 146, 155, 162 

Dean— 11 

Delany — 22 

Depew — 35 

Dinwiddie— 99 

Doak— 140 

Donaho — 175 

Dubois— 101 
Dumeld- 1 51, 67 
Eddy— 62 
Elliott— 79 
Elstock— 85 
Estell— 32 
Feamster — 13 
Flack— 74 
Fulton— 96, 151 
Galloway — 61 
Garnett— 145 
Gillespie — 60 
Gilliland— 20, 
Given — 6, 73 
Graham — 176 
Griffin— 156 
Griffith— 59 
Ham— 9 
Hance— 108 
Hartman — 25 
Hicklin— 76, 80 
Hughes— '148, 
Hutchinson — 81 
Jones — 50 
Kenny — 65 
Kincaid — 2, 37, 
King — 126 
Kirk— 14 
Layne — 169 
Lewis — 54 
Lockridge — 95 
Lower — 105 


114, 115, 143 





Mathews — '20 


McCIenahan— 118 

McClintic— 174 

McClung— 128, 173 

McCorkle— 136 

McCourt— 18 

McGlaughlin— 24, 87 

McGraw— 91 

McCreery— 187 

McGuffin— 66 

McWilliams— 27 

Miller— 10, 16, 19, 110 

Mitchell — 5 

Moffett— 100 

Monroe — 17 

Moore— 48, 129, 160, 167, 168 

Morris— 88 

Mounts — 150 

Murray — 107 

Musson — 130 

Mustoe — 56 

Nicholas— 41 

Nutt— 149 

Parker— 102 

Poage— 94, 184 

Potts— 26 

Robertson — 64 

Robinson— 72, 77, 103 

Roebuck — 52 

Sawyer — 124 

Scott— '3, 170 
See— 185 
Shaw — 116 
Shrewsbury — 36 
Simms — 138 
Sitlington — 7, 93 
Sloan— 92 
Smith— 163, 164 
Sprowl— 116, 120 
Still— 153 
Stewart— '166 
Stuart — 127 
Sutton — 58 
Swearingen — 55 
Taylor— 47 
Thomas — 86 
Toms — 4 
Townsend — 89 
Vance— 82, 113 
Vanosdale— 188 
Venable — 34 
Waddell— 15, 68 
Walker— 172 
Ward— 39 
Warman— 158 
Warrick — 71 
Waugh— 123 
Whitesides — 177 
Wiatt— 98 
Wilson— 159 
Wright— 152 



N THIS chapter we can give only some of the leading 
facts in our local history for the period of just seventy 
years between the organization of Bath and the war of 

The original Bath lay astride the Alleghany Front 
and was at least three times as large as the present county. The re- 
duction to the present boundaries has been by four steps. 

The line between Bath and Pendleton was 20 1 /i miles long as re- 
ported in the survey of 1793. It is described as leaving North 
(Shenandoah) Mountain opposite the lower end of John Redmond's 
plantation, and by a course running N 63^2 degrees W, crossing 
Shaw's Fork below the dwelling of Thomas Deverick's, the Cowpas- 
ture below the land of John Redmond, the Bullpasture below the 
house of Joseph Malcom, and Crab Run below the house of Joseph 
Bell, about 2y 2 miles above the Blue Hole. Thence to the top of the 
Alleghany, no houses are named. 

The first curtailment took place in 1796, when a strip averaging 
three miles in breadth was annexed to Pendleton, the new line running 
through the Dinwiddie Gap and crossing the Cowpasture at the 
mouth of Shaw's Fork. The second and largest reduction came in 
the winter of 1822-23, when the counties of Alleghany and Pocahon- 
tas were established. The third was when Pendleton and Bath were 
shortened to make room for Highland. The last was in 1847 and 
was very small. It consisted of a slight change put into the Bath- 
Alleghany line where it crosses the Cowpasture, so that Sheppard 
Gilliland and Orlando Griffith might be citizens of Alleghany. 

The original line between Bath and Alleghany is thus described: 

(From the) top of Alleghany mountain where the public road crosses to 
Anthony's Creek; thence to the mouth of the draft at Benjamin Thomp- 
son's (deceased) on Jackson's rivr so as to leave the said public road in 
Hath, and with the road as the dividing line between Alexander Mc- 
( lintic and Benjamin Thompson; thence, with the dividing line, crossing 
the river, to top of mountain; thence with top of mountain to intersect 


line run by William Herbert, and with said line to top of mountain at 
Henry Massie's; thence direct to Cowpasture just below William Griffith, 
leaving him in Bath; thence on direct line to top of Mill Mountain 
in Bath line; thence with top of same to corner of Rockbridge on mountain 
top; thence with Rockbridge line between the heads of Simpson's Creek 
and Bratton's Run to top of North Mountain, passing Collier's Gap, and 
thence with boundaries of Alleghany as per Act. 

The section of Bath west of the Alleghany Front went to form 
the greater part of Pocahontas County. A petition of 1812 had stated 
that a third of the people of Bath were living between 25 and 50 
miles from the courthouse. 

The progressive shrinking in the county limits will largely ac- 
count of the fluctations in the census returns, the figures for six 
decades being as follows: 

1800—5508 1830—4002 

1810—4838 1840—4300 

1820—5231 1850—3426 

The falling off between 1800 and 1810 was not because of a di- 
minished area. It was due to the heavy emigration then moving into 
the seemingly boundless West. But since Bath shrank into its present 
dimensions in 1847, the population has doubled, and there has been 
no falling off in any ten-year period. 

It is well known that a domestic animal will sometimes return to 
the former home, regardless of the wishes of the owner. This is 
usually soon after the migration. But in 1810 a horse returned from 
Kentucky after a residence there of 15 years. It was summer time, 
and instead of going at once to the Mayse place, where he had be- 
longed, the animal thought it the proper thing to resume business on 
his old grazing range on the mountain. 

In 1853 there were seven election precincts: Courthouse, Cedar 
Creek, Hamilton's, Cleek's Mill, Williamsville, Milton, and Green 

Because of its summer resorts and its fertile river bottoms, Bath 
has always had a large proportion of negroes as compared with other 
mountain counties. Between 1810 and 1860 the percentage of blacks 


increased from 19 to 27. In the latter year this county had 946 
slaves and 78 free colored persons, as against 402 slaves and 27 free 
colored in the adjacent county of Highland with its then larger total 

A sidelight on material conditions appears in the circumstance 
that while 2117 horses were reported in 1833, there were only six 
coaches, five carryals, and two gigs. The total tax in that year was 

With respect to its county seat and its courthouse, Bath has had a 
somewhat checkered career. For the county buildings, Mrs. Mar- 
garet Lewis offered to donate two acres adjacent to Warm Springs 
Run, and to give free access to a cold spring. But she was in 
straitened circumstances, and payment was made for the land. In 
1795, her son, Thomas L. Lewis, conveyed one acre to Bath County 
for $100. For the May term of 1792 the court sat in the clerk's of- 
fice, and in the next month it met in the upper, or debtor's, room of 
the new jail. It would not seem that the county was then entertain- 
ing any boarders in its jail. 

In April, 1795, a committee was appointed to prepare plans for a 
courthouse of stone, the building to be 20 by 30 feet in the clear, two 
stories high, and not to cost more than 500 pounds ($1666.67). 
The members of the committee were John Bollar, John Dean, John 
Lewis, John White, and Andrew Moore. For drawing the plans, 
William Mathews was to be allowed $3. But no courthouse appears 
to have been ready for more than twelve years after the county was or- 
ganized. The first one was finally built opposite the grounds of the 
Warm Springs hotel. The brick structure is yet standing, and though 
vacant is a serviceable building. 

After 1822 there were petitions for and against the removal of the 
county seat to the twin hamlet of Germantown. Until Highland 
County was created, there was violent opposition to such removal. 
It is only within quite recent years that the change has been effected. 

The justices appointed at the time of the organization of Bath 
were these: 

John Bollar John Leu is James Poage 

Charles Cameron Sampson Mathews Samuel Shrewsbury 

Alexander Crawford John Oliver Samuel Vance 

John Dean John Peebles Jacob Warrick 

John Dickenson George Poape John White 

John Kincaid William Poape John Wilson 


Warrick and the Poages were from beyond the Alleghany. Pee- 
bles and Wilson lived in what is now Highland County. Crawford 
and White seem to have represented the Alleghany area. Crawford 
and Dickenson refused to serve. Bollar, Mathews, and White com- 
prised the committee to build a jail, which was the first county 
building to come into existence. Cameron, who lived at Fassifern, 
used a little stone building on his farm as the first county clerk's of- 

The later justices, for the 32 years during which Bath was 
"Greater Bath," were the following, so far as we can ascertain their 
names. The dates are for the earliest year in whch we find mention 
of the persons: 

Berry, John— 1812 Lewis, Andrew— 1801 

Brown, John— 1794 Lewis, Charles A.— 1812 

Crawford, William— 1793 Lockridge, William— 1797 

Davis, Jesse — 1813 Mason, Moses — 1812 

Dean, William— 1801 Massie, Henry— 1814 

Dean, William M— 1812 McClintic, Alexander— 1812 

Dinwiddie, William— 1796 Milhollen, Thomas— 1796 

Erwin, John— 1794 Moore, Levi— 1796 

Gatewood, Thomas — 1801 Robnson, James — 1792 

Gay, Robert— 1812 Shrewsbury, John— 1797 

Hamilton, James— 1801 Sitlington, Robert— 1797 

Hicklin, James— 1801 Sitington, Willianv-1812 

Hill, Richard— 1815 v Sitlington, George— 1814 

Hite, Keeland— 1813 Slaven, Stewart— 1815 

Holcomb, Timothy— 1795 Tallman, James— 1812 

Johnson, Bartholemew— 1795 Walker, Joe— 1796 

Jordan, John— 1814 Warwick, John— 1794 

Jordan, Solon— 1813 Warwick, Andrew J.— 1814 

Kinkead, Joseph— 1801 White, Valentine— 1796 
Kinkead, Thomas— 1801 

After the reduction of the county in 1823, and previous to the 
war of 1861, we find the following sheriffs: 

Robert Sitlington— 1823 Archer P. Strother— 1848 

Alexander McClintic— 1828 Andrew H. Byrd— 1849 

James Hamilton— -1834 Samuel Lewis — 1851 

William McClintic— 1837 Andrew H. Byrd— 1857 

John Sloan— 1838 Adam G. Cleek— 1858 

Until 1852 the justices of the county courts of Virginia were ap- 
pointed and served without pay. They now became elective and re- 


ceived a per diem allowance. About this time the county was di- 
vided into four districts, each of which was entitled to four justices. 
For a while the districts were designated as First, Second, Third, and 
Fourth. Later, they were given the names of Cedar Creek, Warm 
Springs, Williamsville, and Millboro. 

In 1860 the valuation of real and personal property was 
$3,156,238. There were 16 churches: 6 Baptist, 4 Presbyterian, 4 
Union, 1 Methodist, and 1 Episcopalian. 

In 1794 Virginia was called upon for a quota of 4800 men to be 
used in putting down the Whiskey Insurrection in the southwest of 
Pennsylvania. The commander of the national troops was Governor 
Henry Lee, the father of General Robert E. Lee. As "Light Horse 
Harry," he had made a brilliant record in the Revolution. Some Bath 
men served in this army, but we have not list of their names. The fol- 
lowing letter by one of them was written to a friend at home : 

Camp at Simpson's, the Center of Aligany 32 miles short o/ 

Beason Town 1 & 8 from the Big Crossings 2 , Sunday Morning, 

Oct. 26, '94. 
Dear Mustoe 

Wee are hear Lying on our ores waiting for Better weather. 
It has been Verry wet Since Friday Evening Last and appears to Continue 
this Evening. Wee would Reached Beasontown had the weather been 
Feavorable. Wee will march to Pit 3 at all events & there Remain Some 
time. There will be about 2000 Men Kept there this winter to be Com- 
posed of Volenteers from the whole army when Collected on Imediate 
Drafts from the home Militia if the Volenteers Cannot be Procured, there 
will be Nothing to be Don but to Reduce them to Proper Subordination, 
which will be Easily Effected as they are Almost frighted to Death, the 
Great Breadford made his Escape Eight Days ago Doan the River and Left 
Some fine farms, it is Supposed one of them will be head Quarters this 
winter. Brackenridge, Gattes, Cook, & some others As yet Says they will 
Stand their Tryal in hopes for Mercy, a Captain Higgens — Express from 
that Country Came to Genl Morgan a Thursday Last who Informs there 
Never was so affrighted a People, when they find the Army so near them. 
Genl Morgans Division to which I Belong are the advanced part. My 
Compny Drew Riffles, there is one Regiment of Riffle men in the Division 
Commanded by Colo. Crisup from Maryland, wee are about 500 strong. 
A Military Life is a fine one. Waron 4 Says if Ever he Volenteers it 

'Vow Union town, Pennsylvania. 

2 A ferry on the Youghiogheny. 

3 Pittsbur^. 

4 Probably Abijah Warren. 


again the Devil May be his Captain, for my own Part I am as happy as the 
Nature of my Situation will admit of — a fine apatite & Plenty to Eat and 
Drink, wet Cold Ground to Ly on. wee Ly Down & get up Contented. I 
Procured the Quarter Masters Appointment for Fliegan, which is a hand- 
some one. he Lives in My family. So of Course when Joined with the 
Stof wee shaP Not Want. So hears to You & the two Whites, Cochran, & 
Oliver, & the rest of the Boys about the Springs. Just Merridian, the Publick 
pays for all. Fliegan Joins the Lott. My Love to Dolly & the Childer. I 
shall Soon see them when I Return. 

As Yours 

W. Chambers 

In 1822 many Bath citizens signed a petition for the removal of 
the state capital from Richmond. The reasons given were that Rich- 
mond would be too much exposed in case of war; that its warm cli- 
mate makes it uncomfortable for mountain legislators to attend sum- 
mer sessions ; and that the luxurious habits of its people were distaste- 
ful to the petitioners. 

As already observed, there was a comparatively full population 
in 1790 and a considerable degree of prosperity and comfort. The 
further progress of this county, before the upheaval of 1861, was at 
a steady and substantial pace, so far as agricultural interests were 
concerned. With respect to highways and the summer resorts, the 
advance was more marked. Geography has been kind to Bath. The 
several openings among the mountain ridges between the Iron Gate 
and the Sister Knobs are doorways to through lines of travel between 
East and West. Even before 1800, what was then considered a 
good road led over the Alleghany divide and down the Great Kana- 
wha to Ohio and Kentucky. The Harrisonburg and Warm Springs 
Turnpike, built some years later, was a still better road. It was 
lined with taverns and was traversed by the stages that conveyed vis- 
itors to and from the summer hotels. It was thronged with numerous 
freight wagons and with droves of cattle and other domestic animals. 
In 1857 the pike was partially superseded by the Virginia Central 
Railroad, which in that year had extended its line to Jackson's River 
station, a few miles west of Clifton Forge. War checked the ad- 
vance of the iron path, but in 1867 work was resumed, and under 
the name of the Chesapeake and Ohio, it has grown into a very im- 
portant thoroughfare. 

With respect to slavery, a few clauses in the will of Andrew 


Sitlington are of interest. One of them leaves several slaves to his 
wife and concludes with this wish : "And though I give them entirely 
into her disposal to do unto them as she pleases, yet I cannot help ex- 
pressing confidence in her humanity and tenderness that she will grant 
them their freedom in some reasonable time after her death." He 
desired such emancipation as to slaves over the age of 25. Males 
under 25 were to be "bound out to honest, industrious persons to be- 
come industrious and moral, and taught to read and write, so as to un- 
derstand Scripture and keep their accounts." Females were to be 
bound until 21, and taught "to read, at least, and to habits of indus- 
try and morality, so that they may be good and useful members of 
society." But Sitlington did not deem it prudent or expedient to 
free the male negroes under the age of 25. The freed negroes were 
to contribute to the support of any of their number who might become 

The interest in popular education appears in a petition by Pat- 
rick Maloy and fifty-seven other persons, the names having been pro- 
cured about 1842. We quote some extracts from this paper. 

(There is) no legal provision for the proper location and construction 
of schoolhouses, for supplying well-qualified teachers, or for testing the 
quality' of such as profess to teach; no superintendent of schools, nor gen- 
eral regulations for the proper management of them, or the proper selection 
and supply of textbooks. The fund appropriated for the education of poor 
children is not only deficient in amount, but often negligently and injudi- 
ciously administered. Much of this precious fund has been wasted in pay- 
ing for abortive scraps of tuition. We hold it to be manifestly just and 
proper, that the people should all contribute according to their ability,, to the 
great object of diffusing the blessings of education through all classes of 
our citizens. 

It was not until 1846 that Virginia adopted any plan for free 
public tuition, and even this was not comprehensive. 

An advanced stand against intoxicants is disclosed in a vigorous 
petition, probably written by John H. Ruckman. It was presented 
to the General Assembly, January 15, 1840, by William Lockridge. 
We give below its opening and closing sentences. 

Those laws by which the sale of intoxicating drinks are legalized and 
licensed were originally dictated by a benevolent wish to restrict the sale and 
use of such drinks. They were intended to keep the means of intoxication 
away from the drunkard, but leaving them entirely open to sober men. 
Were the system perfectly successful we should deem it highly objection- 


able, as tending to debase respectable citizens into drunkards. But it is a 
matter of perfect notoriety that it imposes no practical restraints whatever 
upon any person. 

If the laws will continue to permit sinks of vice, poverty, and crime to 
stand open night and day, the same laws must continue to provide poor- 
houses, prisons, gallowses, and graves to receive the victims. Can it be 
necessary to keep up this state of things forever? Does the public good 
require that in these United States 50,000 men shall spend their whole time 
in manufacturing and selling a deadly poison, both to body and soul, and 
that these men shall destroy 25,000,000 bushels of grain yearly, while the 
people are suffering for bread? And is it necessary that 30,000 of our 
fellow citizens shall annually go down to the drunkard's grave, leaving their 
wives widows and their children orphans? Does the public good require 
such a sacrifice? Is there no remedy? Has law nothing to do with hu- 
manity? There is a remedy. Repeal the liquor laws, and in their stead 
provide suitable penal enactments against the further sale and distribution 
of the poison. 

A century after the first appearance of Selim the Algerine there 
was another incident of a quite unusual character. A stranger ap- 
peared in this county one summer, who never revealed his name and 
went to much trouble to avoid meeting people. He would hide if a 
person were coming in his direction and likely to encounter him. 
He occupied a vacant mountain cabin near Bath Alum. An old col- 
ored woman came once a week to keep the habitation in order. 
When he needed provisions, he would place the order and the neces- 
sary money on a stump, and then go off with his gun until the woman 
came back with the supplies. 

One day the negress found him in a delirious condition and called 
a doctor, under whose ministration the man recovered. There was 
a long talk with the mysterious patient, who was found to be a cul- 
tured gentleman of pleasing personality. One day the caretaker 
brought him a letter and photograph which pleased him greatly. In 
taking leave of his physician, he told the latter he was going home and 
that they would never see one another again. The stranger had mon- 
ey and paid all his bills. Who or what he was, or where he came 
from, were things that never became known in Bath. The conjec- 
ture esteemed most plausible was that the eccentric behavior was due 
to a love affair. 

The letter with which we close this chapter was written from 
Indiana. Captain James Bratton, the father, was living near Mill- 
boro. The original letter is in the possession of W. A. Bratton. 


"Montgomery County October th. 20. 1812. 

Honoured father and mother 1 embrace this opportunity of informing 
jou of our welfare. At present that we are well thanks be to the giver of 
all mercies hopeing that these few lines will find al in the same state of 
health. We have had a young daughter born April th eight the name is 
Betsy Dunlap We are highly pleased with our moving to this county as yet 
I have not purchased land as yet but I expect in few days to get place where 
we shall settle upon As to going to the Wabash I have defered as the In- 
dians appears to be very troublesome there yet we have had a very late 
account from the frontiers and the killing the people on the frontiers every 
Chance they get the mounted volunteers that went from this state against 
the indians are now all Coming home the have cut all the corn burnt 
there towns in all this work there never an indian appared against them the 
footmen are to stay during the winter nothing more but remain your loving 
son and daughter till death 

"Robert and Anne Bratton" 

"Remember us to William Crawford and the family likewise to John 
Poter and his family Brother David and his family are well." 



URING the war of 1861 this county adhered to the Con- 
federate government. A large share of the able-bodied 
men were absent in the Southern army, and the hotels 
in Warm Springs valley were converted into military 
hospitals. Bath did not itself come within the sphere of important 
military operations. There were slight skirmishes at Williamsville 
and Millboro, but no engagement of importance. Yet the Federal 
cavalry several times raided through the valleys and thus brought the 
people face to face with some of the aspects of actual warfare. 

The men serving on the county court for the term 1860-64 may 
well be termed the "war justices." Their names are as follows: 

First District: Alexander H. McClintic (president), Anthony Mustoe, 
William W. Shields, George Mayse. 

Second District: Aaron G. McGuffin, Osborne Hamilton, Roger Hick- 
man, . 

Third District: Moses McClintic, William C. Burger, Stephen Wan- 
less, John Carpenter. 

Fourth District: Thomas Sitlington, John U. Dickenson, Addison Mc- 
Clung, Robert P. Williams. 

It is a very exceptional fact that Bath supplied from one of ts 
households a general of brigade rank to each of the contending armies. 
They were sons of William H. Terrell, an eminent lawyer who 
filled the position of commonwealth's attorney in 1860-64. Brigadier- 
General William R. Terrell, a graduate of West Point, took his 
stand with the Union, and his artillery was very instrumental in sav- 
ing the day for the Federals at Shiloh. He was killed in the battle 
at Perryville, Kentucky, October 8, 1862, and was buried at West 
Point. Brigadier-General James B. Terrell, a graduate of the Vir- 
ginia Military Institute, went with the South, and was killed in the 
battle of the Wilderness in 1864. He was serving as colonel at the 
time, but his commission as brigadier-general had already been signed. 
The Terrill brothers were descendants of the McCausland family, 
now extinct in Bath. 


To deal as directly as possible with the way in which this county 
experienced the vicissitudes of the struggle, we present some data 
taken in chronological order from the pages of the county records. 


Jim. a slave of Mary C. Frazier, was acquitted, April 21st, of the charge 
of feloniously conspiring to plot, rebel, and make insurrection. But as he 
was of bad reputation, a bond of $150 was demanded from his owner. 

The county court ordered, May 14th, that $1500 be appropriated out of 
the forthcoming levy to arm and otherwise equip a troop of cavalry. 
Charles R. McDannald was appointed its agent for this purpose. A patrol 
of 16 men was appointed July 9th, according to an act of Assembly. The 
poll tax voted was $4.25. 


Martial law was proclaimed by the Confederate president, March 29th. 
An order from General Heth requiring a provost marshal in Bath, Robert 
B. Matheny was recommended for the position. Salt being scarce, John P. 
McDannald was authorized, April 8th, to borrow money for the purchase 
of 100 sacks, the fund so used to be repaid out of the next levy. At the same 
time, and in pursuance of a military order, all free able-bodied negroes be- 
tween the ages of 18 and 45 were ordered to report. Of these, 12 were re- 
quired to work the road between Milboro and Warm Springs. There being 
no election at the usual time, of sheriff and commissioner of the revenue, a 
special election was ordered for November 27th. December 9th, 12 patrols 
were ordered, three for each district 


A smallpox hospital was ordered, January 13th. On the same day it was 
decreed that $3500 be applied to the relief of destitute families, the justices 
acting as distributors. Notes to this amount, in denominations of one dollar, 
fifty cents, and twenty-five cents, were ordered to be printed and then 
signed by the presiding justice By order of the Secretary of War, five free 
negroes were drafted to chop wood on the Virginia Central Railroad. 

There was a requisition on the county, February 13th, for 40 slaves 
between the ages of 18 and 45, the purpose of the call being to employ 
them in building fortifications around Richmond. The answer was that of 
the 781 slaves in 1862, there should have been available 104; but that some 
had been removed from the county by their owners, others had been sold 
because of the nearness of the enemy, while from 14 to 16 had escaped, and 
from 12 to 15 were physically unfit for service. As the draft was therefore 
deemed much too heavy, the War Department reduced the requisition to 30, 
a third of whom were to go to Richmond. Wiliam Shumate was detailed 
to have charge of the party. 

In March, John Cleek was appointed an agent to procure cotton and 

BATH IN THE WAR OF 1861 145 

yarn from the South. It was announced that goods thus purchased were 
for use and not for speculation. A special election was ordered for May, 
but none took place. A claim of $584 against the county was allowed, 
December 8th. It was for flour to the amount of 14 barrels and 61 pounds. 
On the same day the sheriff was ordered to make a list of all indigent sol- 
diers honorably discharged, and also a list of the widows and minor chil- 
dren of deceased soldiers. 

In September, there was a call for 20 slaves between the ages of 18 and 
55. The answer was returned that the number of such was still further 
reduced, from 15 to 20 having lately been abducted by the Federals. 


Bonds to the amount of $15,000 for the relief of destitute soldiers were 
ordered, January 12th. Ten slaves were requisitioned, in February, but 
only about 30 of the class asked for were reported as now in the county. 
At the May election, Charles R. McDannald was chosen clerk, Adam G. 
Cleek sheriff, and William McClintic surveyor. The poll tax for the 350 
tithables was fixed at $10, and to pay the allowances for the destitute, a 
levy of 2J^ per cent, was ordered on the assessment of $2,266,125. The 
Federal inroads causing the production of foodstuffs to be less than the 
needs of the population, it was asked that the head tax might be paid in 
money. In December there was a requisition for five slaves beween the 
ages of 17 and 50, the draft to be supplied by individuals individualy own- 
ing a number equal to the call. It was replied that there were but two such 
pel sons. One of these had lost seven by capture within 18 months. Some 
negroes had been secreted, and others had been stolen away. There was a 
request that six millers, five blacksmiths, two shoemakers, and one tanner 
be exempted from detail service. 

In October, Smith Darnell was allowed $13,743.10 of the depreciated cur- 
rency for the relief of the destitute in the First District. 


It was announced in January that a third of the slaves had been ab- 
ducted. In April the county court ordered that any surplus of provisions 
which might exist should be distributed at prices not to exceed the following 
figures: Wheat, per bushel, $50; corn, $30; rye, $30; buckwheat, $30; 
potatoes, $15; bacon, per pound, $11. 

The last session of the court under the Confederate government was held 
April 14th. The clerk was ordered to remove the records to a place of 

The next session was held August 21st, the members being James L. 
Bratton, John Carpenter, John Cleek, Sr., Smith Darnell, Osborne Ham- 
ilton, Charles H. Hughart, Alexander H. McClung. and Addison McClung. 



N MAY, 1861*, a company of the young men of Bath, 
eager for the fray, responded promptly to the call of the 
governor of Virginia The patriotic daughters of the 
2J county soon raised the funds to purchase a beautiful silk 
flag. This was presented on the Saturday preceeding the departure 
of the company from Staunton on its way toward the northwest. The 
speech of presentation was by Nicholas K. Trout, Mayor of Staun- 
ton. The flag was received by Captain A. T. Richards, of the 
company with these words: "We will cherish it as we will our 
wives and sweethearts." 

The Bath company was a cavalry command. It marched under 
sealed orders to Philippi, W. Va., where it reported to Colonel Por- 
terfield, commanding the Confederate forces there. It rendered good 
service in picketing and scouting, during the interval up to the sur- 
prise by the Federals under General Kelley. In this engagement, L. 
P. Dangerfield of the company, lost a leg by a minie ball, he and a 
member of another command being the first Virginia soldiers to be 
wounded in the war. On the other hand, A. M. McClintic 2 wound- 
ed General Kelley by a ball from his flintlock pistol. 

Because of the hasty retreat from Philippi, the company was so 
unfortunate as to lose its beautiful flag. It was in its case in the 
company's wagon, and in the suddenness of the early morning attack 
was overlooked. The retreat continued to Beverly, where General 
Garnett took command. With other troops the Bath Cavalry were 
advanced to Laurel Hill, northwest of Beverly. While here being 
drilled in the duties of the soldier, they continued to do good work in 
picketing the roads leading toward the Federal position. Early in 
July General McCIellan advanced from Buckhannon by the Staunton 
and Parkersburg pike, and overpowered after a gallant resistance the 

iXhis account is condensed from articles written for the Bath News by 
Lieutenant A. C. L. Gatewood. His letters relating to events after the bat- 
tle of Gettysburg were not available to us. 

2 John W. Sheffer, according to another account. 


Confederates on Rich Mountain. Pegram and his men were cap- 
tured but were released on parole to return to their homes and there 
remain until regularly exchanged. Among the prisoners were the 
Bath Greys under command of Captain S. A. Bonner. Pegram's 
men reported kind treatment by McClellan and his army. After their 
exchange the Greys were transferred to the cavalry service and were 
now commanded by Captain W. D. Ervin. Their assignment was to 
the 18th Virginia Cavalry of Imboden's Brigade. 

General Garnett began his retreat the evening of July 9th, intend- 
ing to make a stand in the mountain passes near Huntersville. But 
learning that the road to Beverly was in the hands of the Federals, 
his only way to escape was northeastward through Tucker County. 
At Corrick's Ford — now Parsons — he gave battle and was killed. 
McClellan, an old friend and classmate at West Point, had his body 
embalmed and sent to his family. From the Cheat River to Peters- 
burg, Garnett's men had nothing to eat except fresh beef killed on the 
road and eaten without salt or bread. At Petersburg there were sup- 
plies for the famished soldiers. After a rest the march was continued 
to Monterey, where within a few weeks General R. E. Lee took 
command and advanced into Pocahontas County. The Bath Cavalry 
were assigned to his army, being put into a battalion commanded by 
his son, Major W. H. F. Lee. 

The summer was unusually wet and there was much sickness from 
measles and typhoid fever. The country from Valley Mountain, 
where General Lee made his headquarters, down to Huntersville is 
dotted with the neglected graves of soldiers, especially the Georgia 
troops. The Bath Cavalry were at Huntersville till late in the fall, 
when from the great difficulty of provisioning the army, the command 
was odered into winter quarters at Bath Alum, and afterward at 
Rockbridge Alum. 1 

Early in May it was known that a foraging party from Milroy's 
army was in the neighborhood of Williamsville. With a view of 
bagging the detachment, the Bath Cavalry set out at 2 P. M., and at 

because of the recruits who came in at these places, the Bath Squadron 
was divided into two companies, F and G, commanded, respectively, by 
Captains A. G. McChesney and F. A. Dangerfield. 


night were near the foraging party. At daylight they took position 
on the Burnsville road a little way out from Williamsville. It was 
by this road that the foragers were to return to McDowell. A picket 
on an opposite hill within observation of the foragers was to fire his 
gun as a signal for the attack. The train was captured, only a few 
shots being fired. A Federal refusing to surrender was wounded in 
the shoulder by J. W. Warwick, Jr. The booty amounted to 15 
prisoners, 25 wagons, and 105 horses. Because of high water in the 
Cowpasture, and the danger of being intercepted if the return were 
by the Burnsville road, the wagons were set on fire. The wounded Fed- 
eral recovered. He was a cousin to Mrs. Felix Hull, of McDowell. 
Just after the battle of McDowell, which took place May 8th, the 
two companies, a fine looking and well mounted body of troops, were 
ordered to report at Staunton. Company G was put on detached 
service, to scout down the South Branch toward Franklin. Company 
F was sent to Richmond, and thence on picket duty toward Freder- 
icksburg. Early in July, Company G was sent to Gordonsville to 
picket the Rapid Anna near that place. July 4, a scouting party 
from Company F, under command of Lieutenant Henry McClintic, 
was surprised in Caroline County. Six men escaped, but four — E. 
B. Williams, M. P. Surber, W. H. Tinsley, and C. Cochran — were 
captured. After this occurrence, there was some skirmishing with 
Kilpatrick's men. July 25th, Company F was put into the 17th Bat- 
talion, Virginia Cavalry. In a skirmish early in August, Company G 
lost three men. The captain and A. M. McClintic were wounded 
and captured and William Thompson was killed. The company, 
now under Lieutenant Joseph Mayse, was ordered to McDowell on 
detached service. Shortly afterward the 17th Battalion was detailed 
to convoy to Richmond the 600 prisoners taken in the battle of Cedar 
Run. It then rejoined Stonewall Jackson's army, and accompanied 
it on the flanking movement which brough on the second battle of 
Manassas. Its position was on Jackson's extreme left. This force 
reached Middleburg August 28th, where an unusual hospitality was 
shown to the men, the chronicler being careful to mention that never 
before had he seen so many pretty young ladies in a small town. But 
the sound of cannon toward the southeast made it necessary to resume 
the march, and that night the cavalry were deployed as videttes in 
front of the infantry. Next day the 17th supported Chew's Battery. 


After the Federal lines were broken on the 30th, the cavalry were sent 
in pursuit. 

While General Lee was moving across the Potomac into Maryland, 
the 17th Batallion and the 12th Virginia Cavalry were ordered to 
make a demonstration on Martinsburg to keep the Federals there 
from reenforcing Harper's Ferry. This brought on an engagement 
at Darkesville, Sept. 6th. The loss of Company E, which was arm- 
ed with double-barelled shotguns, was four killed and six wounded. 
Early in November, General W. E. Jones took command of Ashby's 
old brigade of which the 17th was now a part, and was left in charge 
of the lower Shenandoah Valley. The 17th was stationed seven 
miles north of Winchester in order to scout the roads toward Romney. 
Company G joined the battalion here, and during the remainder of 
the war the two Bath companies were never separated. In December, 
Jones made a reconnoissance toward Moorefield. About the middle 
of February companies I and K were added to the 17th Battalion, 
which became known as the 11th Virginia Cavalry. Lieutenant A. 
J. Ware became captain of Company F, and Henry McClintic the 
first lieutenant. Between Edinburg and Woodstock the 11th en- 
countered the 13th Pennslyvania Cavalry, February 26th, and cap- 
tured over 200 men. 

In April, Colonel L. L. Lomax, a graduate of West Point, took 
command of the regiment, which on the 21st of the same month, as 
a part of the brigade under General Jones, began a raid into West 
Virginia. The whole command was in fine order, the men having 
fresh mounts. Starting from near Harrisonburg, and moving through 
Brock's Gap to Moorefield, the South Branch was found so high that 
it was necessary to go 10 miles up the river to find a ford at all 
practicable. The crossing was with much difficulty and danger, one 
member of the 6th Regiment being drowned. At Greenland Gap a 
Federal force of 150 men was captured, though after considerable 
delay. At daylight on the 26th, "Red House" was reached. This was 
a point on the line of Garnett's retreat, nearly two years earlier. The 
command passed through Preston County, greatly harrassed by bush- 
whackers. At Evansville the soldiers were permitted to help them- 
selves to the goods of the merchants. One fellow, not knowing what 
he wanted, tied about a dozen pairs of hoop skirts to his saddle. But 
General Jones made him get off his horse, put on a pair, and then 


prominade up and down the street in the presence of the other troops, 
at the same time giving him a verbal reprimand for burdening his 
horse with such baggage. The 12th Regiment gained the name of 
"Calico 12th," from its taking back to Dixie more of that brand of 
cloth than any other command. 

Jones advanced to Morgantown, some of his command pushing 
onward nearly to Uniontown. He next seized Fairmont, where he 
captured without any fight the 105th New York Infantry, and some 
Home Guards, a total of about 800 prisoners. They were released 
on parole, the Home Guards with the promise that they would be- 
have better in the future. At this town the fine railroad bridge was 
destroyed. This act was a severe blow to the Federal cause. A pon- 
toon bridge had to be used for the next six months, and a permanent 
one was not constructed until after the war. Near Bridgeport there 
was a hot skirmish, in which Company G lost two men. Upon reach- 
ing the town some damage was done to the railroad and rolling stock. 
It was here at Bridgeport that Imboden was to meet Jones, after 
which the united force was to capture Clarksburg and then wreck the 
railroad bridges and tunnels in the direction of Parkeisburg. But the 
other command not appearing, Jones moved to Philippi, and learning 
that Imboden was at Buckhannon, he joined him there, and the united 
forces advanced to Weston, where they rested a few days. Imboden 
then went to Sutton, while Jones struck the railroad again, this time 
at Pennsboro, tearing up the track from that point to Cairo. He then 
moved to Burning Springs on the little Kanawha, where a vast 
quantity of oil was set on fire, turning the river into a flaming lake 
for 12 miles, and killing the timber within a hundred yards of either 
bank. The next objective was Sutton, where the 11th was detached 
from the bribade, rejoining it at Warm Springs. After this the old 
camp near Harrisonburg was reoccupied. The raid had lasted 30 
days and was very fatiguing, but resulted in the infliction of much 
damage and the capture of much livestock. 

After a short rest, Jones was ordered to join General J. E. B. 
Stuart at Culpeper, where in June there was a review of the whole- 
cavalry corps. The spectacle was very imposing. Next day the 
great cavalry battle of Brandy Station took place, in which the 11th 
captured a battery and routed a large force of cavalry. For this 


achievement, Colonel Lomax became a brigadier general. The next 
fight was at Upperville, where both the Bath companies sustained some 
loss. In the advance of Lee's army into Pennsylvania, the 11th was 
on the extreme right, and at Fairfield repulsed the 2d U. U. Cavalry 
(regulars), this being the regiment of their commander-in-chief be- 
fore the war. 

At the close of this year, General Rosser became the brigade 
commander. The campaigning of 1864 took place in the valleys of 
the Shenandoah and the South Branch. 



EARLY all of the soldiers from Bath in the Confeder- 
ate army served in the 11th Cavalry and the 52d In- 
fantry of the Virginia Line. The services of the cav- 
il airy command are related in a special chapter. The 
52d Infantry served first in the brigade of General Edward Johnson, 
and took part in the battle of McDowell. Then and afterward it 
was under Stonewall Jackson in the Valley of Virginia and East of 
the Blue Ridge. 

The following roster is a consolidated list, gathered from the rolls 
collected some years since by the veterans of the county. It is not in- 
tended to include men who were not residents of Bath between 1860 
and 1865, nor who were not honorably discharged from the Confed- 
erate service. The list does not assume to be complete or perfect. It 
has had the best revision we could command ,but the War of 1861 
now lies more than 50 years in the past and hence it is all but impos- 
sible to attain absolute accuracy.* 

So far as our information will permit, each name is followed by 
these particulars: 

1. The company (indicated by letter) and the regiment (bv 
number) in which the soldier served, the regiment being understood 
to be infantry unless otherwise mentioned. 

2. The soldier's rank. Where no rank is mentioned it is to be 
understood that he was a private. 

3. Facts as to being killed, wounded, or taken prisoner, and 
where and when. 

4. If still living, his postoffice address in August, 1917. Where 
no state name follows the name of the state, an address in Virginia 
is to be understood. 

Names of military prisons are sometmes mentioned in the case 
of prisoners of war. 

Names followed by a star indicate the soldiers who went out on 
service May 13, 1861, these being the first ones to go from Bath. 


The following abbreviations are used in the list: 

Capt — captain wd — wounded in action 

Lt — lieutenant m wd — mortally wounded 

Sergt — sergeant cp — taken prisoner 

Corp — corporal d — died of sickness during the war 

Qmr — quartermaster D — died since the war 

k — killed in action ukn — whereabouts unknown 


Acord, George — F — 11 Cav — k Wilderness, '64 

Adams, William— K— 52 

Ailstock, Simon — Grays 

Ailstock, C. F.— F— 11 Cav 

Ailstock, Jordan — G — 11 Cav — cp — d, prison 

Ailstock, Zerubabel*— G — 11 Cav— 3d Corp.— D 

Anderson, William H.* — G — 11 Cav — 4-th Corp. — cp — ukn 

Anderson, Samuel — F — 11 Cav —4th Corp — D 

Archie, Robert— G— 11 Cav— D 

Archie, Stephen P.— K— 52-4D 

Armstrong. Dr. J. M. — G — 11 Cav — Ass't Surgeon — Ardmore, Okla. 

Ayers, Stephen P. — K — 52 

Baldwin, Peter— ?— 52— D 

Peaty, George— 'Grays — D 

Bennett, Grays — unkn 

Bess, Andrew J. — unkn 

Bethel, James S— K— 52 

Bogan, S. W. B.— ?— 18 Cav 

Bolton, John — Grays 

Bonner, S. A.— F— 11 Cav— Lt— k Wilderness '64 

Bonner, Andrew G.* — Bath Cav 

Boone, Walter— K— 52 — 4th Sergt 

Booth, F — 11 Cav — West Virginia 

Bratton, Andrew S— F— 11 Cav— 2d Sergt— D 

Bratton, William A.* — F — 11 Cav — k — Blackwater '64 

Bratton, John F.— F— 11 Cav— Bolar 

Bratton, James — F — 11 Cav — D 

Bratton, J. M.— 'G— 11 Cav — Millboro 

Bright, Thomas — Grays 

Bright, John — Grays — D 

Bright, David — Grays — D 

Bryan, Dr. C. P. 

'We are indebted to Mr. George W. Wallace for a revision of the 


Burger, David— F— 11 Cav— D 

Burger, Samuel C— G— 11 Cav^D 

Burger, William C— K — 52 — 1st Lt — D 

Burns, M. C— K— 52 

Burns, Aaron W — K— 52 

Burns, Lewis F. — K — 52 — D 

Burns, Hughart M — ?— 18 Cav— D 

Burns, Pressley — G — =11 Cav — D 

Burns, John — G — 11 Cav — Tex. 

Burns, Michael N. — K — 52 — 1st Corp — m wd '62 

Burns, Joseph 

Carpenter, William R. N.— K— 52— d '62 

Carpenter, J. W. — ? — 18 Cav — Burnsville 

Carter, Thomas — Grays — D 

Cauley, Lee— G— 11 Cav— McClung 

Cauley, Brown — ? — 11 Cav — McClung 

Chandler, Samuel — F — 11 Cav — West Virginia 

Chandler, David— ?— 11 Cav 

Chandler, Stround — Grays 

Clark, James M.— K— 52 

Cleek, Eli*— G— 11 Cav— D 

Cleek, James*— G— 11 Cav — D 

Cleek, George W— F— 11— Cav— 2d Corp.— cp— Darkesville '62— Bolar 

Cleek, D. G— F— 11 Cav— wd, Wilderness— '64 — D 

Cleek, Thomas* 

Cleek, Adam G.*— K— 52— D 

Cleek, Jacob— K— '52— D 

Cosby, Benjamin — G — 11 Cav — D 

Cosby, John — G — 11 Cav — d, home 

Cosby, David— G— 11 Cav — D 

Coyner, Robert — Grays — D 

Coyner, William — Clifton Forge 

Criser, William H.*— G— 11 Cav — D 

Criser, T. J.— G— 11 Cav.— D, 1898 

Criser, J. Lewis*— F— 11 Cav — D 

Criser, John S.*— »F — 11 Cav — Warm Springs 

Criser, Robert J.*— F— 11 Cav — D 

Curry, Alexander — K — 52 

Curry, Martin V.— K— 52— D 

Curry, Samuel M.— K— 52— D 

Curry, Peter S.— K— 52— 3d Corp — D 

Curry, Andrew* — G — 11 Cav — D 

Curtis, Joseph — Grays 

F>aggy, John H.— K— 52— D 

Danellor, William— G— 11 Cav —2d Corp— k Blackwater '64 

Danellor, F. G.* — <unkn 


Dangerfield, F. A.*— G— 11 Cav— Capt— w and cp, '62— D 

Dangerfield, Leroy P.* — wd, Philippi '61 — D 

Dean, William*— F— 11 Cav 

Deeds, John L. — D 

Dickenson, John S. — F — 11 Cav — 1st Corp — D 

Donovan, Stephen — G — 11 Cav 

Douglas, B. R. — F — 11 Cav — Sitlington 

Douglas, Calvin — Grays — k Fisher's Hill '64 

Dunlap, Joseph M. — >F — 11 Cav — 1st Sergt 

Erwin, William D. — Grays 

Erwin, Dr. James R. — G — 11 Cav — k Wilderness '64 

Foster, David C— K— 52 

Fry, James — G — 11 Cav 

Fry, William— F— 11 Cav — D 

Garrison, John W.— K— 52 

Gatewood, A. C. L.— F— 11 Cav —2d Lt — wd Darkesville '62 

Gay, David* — ukn 

Gay, Henry — ukn 

George, Samuel F. — ukn 

Gibson, Lewis — F — 11 Cav 

Gibson, Stephen — Grays — D 

Gillespie, Joseph G.* — F — 11 Cav — m wd '64 

Gillespie, John W.— K— 52 

Gillett, James — K — 52 — Warm Springs 

Gillett, Andrew W.—K— 52— Flood 

Gillett, John W.— K— 52— D 

Gillett, William R.—K— 52— Color Sergt— D 

Gillett, Daniel— Grays— Tex. 

Ginger, James* — G — 11 Cav — D 

Ginger, George — F — 11 Cav — k Orange '62 

Ginger, Frank — Grays — D 

Ginger, Samuel — Grays — Warm Springs 

Cladwell, John— G— 11 Cav — D 

Glendy, R. G.*— G— 11 Cav —4th Sergt— D 

Glendy, Thomas— G— 11 Cav— D 

Glendy, John— G — 11 Cav — D 

Glendy, Benjamin — G — 11 Cav 

Gordon, James W. — ukn 

Green, B. W. — Grays — ukn 

Green, William— G — 11 Cav — k Upperville '63 

Gross, Henry — F — 11 Cav k Wilderness '64 

Gross, William A.— >D 

Groves, John, Jr. — K — 52 

Gwin, J. S.— F— 11 Cav 

Gwin, James K. P.— F— 11 Cav— D 

Gwin, William— F— 11 Cav— d. diphtheria 


Hamilton, Charles* — F — '11 Cav — k Edinburg '62 
Hamilton, Joseph E.* — F — 11 Cav — D 
Hamilton, John A. — F — 11 Cal — Rockbridge Co. 
Hamilton, Charles B. — K — 52 
Hamilton, C. A.— K— 52 
Harouff, James — Grays — D 
Harris, William — 'Grays 

Haynes, — Grays 

Heffner, Zebulon — K — 52 

Hickman, L.— F— 11 Cav— D 

Hicks, William E.— D 

Hite, Allen— 'D 

Hively, Thomas — G — 11 Cav — d, home 

Hively, George W.— K— 52— D 

Hodge, James, W. D.— F— 11 Cav — D 

Hodge, Joseph — Grays — D 

Hodge, Reuben — 'D 

Hodge, William — Deerfield 

Hoover, John A. — K — 52 — D 

Hoover, Jacob A.— K— 52— D 

Hoover, William A.— K— 52— 3d. Sergt— D 

Hoover, Samuel— K— 52— 2d. Corp — D 

Hoover, David— G— 11 Cav — D 

Hopkins, W. H— G — 11 Cav— 1st. Sergt— wd Upperville, '63— D 

Hughart, Charles A.— K— 52— D 

Hughart, Robert — Grays — D 

Husk, Thomas R— C— 11 Cav— ukn 

Huzer, William J.— K— 52— ukn 

Jack, David — Grays — D 

Jack, William, Z. B.— K— 52— D 

Jack, John H.— K— 52— D 

Jackson, George — ukn 

Jackson, Peyton — G — 11 Cav — Richmond 

Johnson, — G — 11 Cav 

Jordan, James — F — 11 Cav 

Jordan, John— F— 11 Cav— D 

Jordan, William— F— 11 Cav — D 

Jordan, William D. — Grays 

Jordan, William C. S. — Grays — D 

Karnes, William H.— G— 11 Cav — wd. Brandy, '63— D 

Keatz, John — ukn. 

Keizer, Marshall D.— K— 52 

Keizer, H. G.— K— 52 

Kenny, James — Grays — D 

Keyser, James — F — 11 Cav. — D 

Keyser, D. W. C— F— 11 Cav — D 


Keyser, Hezekiah* — F — 11 Cav 

Kincaid, Thomas M.— K— 52— D 

Kincaid, Floyd — D 

Kincaid, James N. — D 

Kincaid, Joseph B.*— G— 11 Cav — D 

Kirpatrick, William, R — K— 52 

Kirkpatrick, C. T.— Bolar 

Lair, John — D 

Landes, Joseph — F — 11 Cav 

Landes, James 

Lange, Henry — G — 11 Cav — k Edinburg, '62 

Lange, William — unk 

Lange, John — G — 11 Cav 

Law, Aaron — F — 11 Cav — k Wilderness, '64 

Law, James — G — 11 Cav — D 

Law Benjamin H. — G — 11 Cav — McClung 

Law, Stephen — G — 11 Cav — D 

Lawrence, William — Grays 

Lewisi Jasper C* — G — 11 Cav — 2d Sergt — Green Valley 

Lindsay, John A.— K— 52— 2d Lt 

Lindsay, William 

Lindsay, R. D.— ?— 18 Cav— McClung 

Lindsay, Paul — D 

Linkswiler, Joseph — K — 52 — D 

Linkswiler, James — K — 52 — D 

Liptrap, David — K — 52 

Loan, Samuel — K — 52 — D 

Lockridge, Cooper* — G — 11 Cav — D 

Lockridge, Jacob 

Lockridge, David — F — 11 Cav — 2d Sergt — wd — d, home 

Lockridge, L.— Churchville— F— 11 Cav— D 

Lockridge, John W.— G— 11 Cav— D 

Lockridge, Andrew J. — ? — 31 — D 

Lockridge, Lewis C. — Grays — D 

Lockridge, William — D 

Lowman, James D. — G — 11 Cav — D 

Lyle, William A.— K— 52— D 

Lyle, John — Grays — D 

Lyle, Samuel — Grays 

Lyle, Benjamin F. — ? — 18 Cav 

Marshall, J. M.— D 

Marshall, William — Grays 

Martin, W. A.— F— 11 Cav 

Matheny, Oliver T. — Gray9 — D 

Mayse, Allen— G — 11 Cav— D 

Mayse, Thomas — G — 11 Cav — D 


Mayse, Joseph*— G — 11 Cav — 1st Lt — D 

Mayse, Charles F. — G — 11 Cav — Fort Lewis 

Mayse, Dr. George — G — 11 Cav 

Mayse, Anderson — F — 11 Cav — D 

McAllister, John W. — McClung 

McChesney, A. G. — F — 11 Cav— »Capt — resigned, '63 — D 

McClintic, W. S.— G— 11 Cav— D 

McClintic, Adam A.*— G — 11 Cav— k, Cedar Creek, '64- 

McClintic, Robert S. — G — 11 Cav — k, Patterson's Creek 

McClintic, A. B— G— 11 Cav— D 

McClintic, John— F— 11 Cav— D 

McClintic, James — K — 52 — D 

McClintic, Henry— F— 11 Cav— 1st Lt— D 

McClintic, A. M.— G — 11 Cav— 2d Lt— wd and cp, '62— D 

McClintic, G. T.— G— 11 Cav— 3d Sergt— Tex. 

McClung, W. T.—K— 52— McClung 

McClung, John — Grays — D 

McCray, William — Grays — Hot Springs 

McDannald, William C.*— F— 11 Cav— D 

McDannald, George W— F— 11 Cav 

McDannald, J. P.— F— 11 Cav— Qmr Sergt— D 

McDannald, S. Crockett* — G — 11 Cav — d, disease, '62 

McDannald, W. K.— G— 11 Cav— D 

McElwee, John— F— 11 Cav— d, '64 

McEIwee, Francis — F — 11 Cav 

McElwee, William D. — Grays (?) 

McElwee, "Bud"— F— 11 Cav 

McElwee, Divis — F — 11 Cav 

McElwee, Bernard F— F— 11 Cav 

McGuffin, James — F — 11 Cav — 2d Lt — resigned, '62— <D 

McMath, Samuel— G — 11 Cav— D 

McMullen, John— K— 52 

Miller, John M— K— 52 

Miller, Andrew* 

Moffett, W. B.— F— 11 Cav 

Moore, W. H— F— 11 Cav 

Moore, — Grays 

Morris, Joseph 

Mustoe, M— F— 11 Cav— 3d Corp— D 

Mustoe, George — F — 11 Cav — O 

Neff, Allen— ?— 18 Cav— D 

Oliver, C. H.— G— 11 Cav 

Oliver, Charles — Grays 

Oliver, Joseph— G— 11 Cav— k (?) 

O'Mara, James— F— 11 Cav— D 

Painter, Alexander — Grays 


Painter, James— Grays— D 

Painturff, J. H.— F— 11 Cav 

Palmer, George— Grays 

Payne, Charles— G — 11 Cav 

Payne, George — D 

Payne, Lewis— F— 11 Cav^th Corp— cp, Darkesville, '62 

Payne, W. G.— F— 11 Cav— 2d Corp— Charlottesville 

Payne, William H.*— F— 11 Cav— Alderson, W. Va. 

Payne, J. E.— F— 11 Cav— 'Warm Springs 

Phillips, Wiliam*— G— 11 Cav 

Phillips, Thomas*— G— 11 Cav 

Porter, Andrew S.— F— 11 Cav— wd— D 

Price, Henry— F— 11 Cav— D 

Pritt, James — K — 52 

Propst, James — D 

Putnam, Albert — D 

Putnam, Samuel — Grays — D 

Ratcliff, Warwick C— K— 52— D 

Ratcliff, James P.— K— >52— D 

Ratcliff, William— Grays— D 

Ratcliff, — Grays— D 

Ray, J. Shaw— D 

Ray, Thomas T— Grays— D 

Rider, Jacob M.— K-»52— D 

Ritchie, William*— G— 11 Cav— D 

Ritchie, Joseph — G — 11 Cav 

Rithway, William — D 

Rogers, Stephen — G — 11 Cav 

Rogers, J. H. 

Rosser, John — F — 11 Cav — k, Wilderness, '64 

Rourke, Charles K. S.— K— 52— D 

Rowe, John A. — D 

Rucker, — Grays — D 

Shelton, Thomas A.— K— 52— D 

Shultz, John— F— 11 Cav— D 

Shumate, John R. — G — 11 Cav 

Shumate, William H.*— D 

Silver, Joseph— F— 11 Cav— Color Sergt— k, Cedar Creek, '64 

Simpson, George — G — 11 Cav — D 

Simpson, John F. — G — 11 Cav — D 

Simpson, William — G — 11 Cav — Millboro Springs 

Simpson, Michael— K — 52 

Sittlington, Alexander H— F— 11 Cav— D 

Sively, George L.— F— 11 Cav— D 

Smith, John— K— 52 

Smith, James M.— K— 52— d, '62 



Smith, James— 'G— 11 Cav— D 

Smith, Charles— G— 11 Cav— D 

Smith, Stewart — G — 11 Cav — wd — Millboro 

Smith, James— F— 11 Cav— d, '63 

Snead, Anthony— K— '52— 4th Corp— D 

Snead, William — F — 11 Cav 

Snead, Robert V.— F— 11 Cav— D 

Snead, Samuel — K — 52 — D 

Snead, John — K — 52 — D 

Sprouse, William — Grays — D 

Sprouse, Walker— K— 52— D 

Stewart, James H.— F— 11 Cav— D, 1894 

Stinespring, James — Grays — 'D 

Stinespring, Jonathan — D 

Surber, M. P.— F— 11 Cav— cp, '62 

Swartz, John — G — 11 Cav 

Swartz, Samuel R. — F — 11 Cav — cp, Darkesville, '62 — D 

Swartz, Lewis R.— >F— 11 Cav— cp, Darkesville, '62— D 

Swearingen, James N. — K — 52 — D 

Swearingen, William — Grays — D 

Taylor, Almond S.*— G— 11 Cav— D 

Thomas, Charles — F — 11 Cav — Augusta Co. 

Thomas, Charles A.* — G — 11 Cav — Hot Springs 

Thomas, David — F — 11 Cav 

Thomas, George — F — 11 Cav — D 

Thomas, Jacob — G — 11 Cav — k, Wilderness, '64 

Thomas, John J. — K — 52 

Thomas, John M. — Grays 

Thomas, Samuel B.* — F — 11 Cav — D 

Thompson, Benjamin — G — 11 Cav — k, Wilderness, '64 

Thompson, Charles* — G — 11 Cav — D 

Thompson, George — G — 11 Cav — D 

Thompson, Henry — F — 11 Cav 

Thompson, Mason — G — 11 Cav — d, home 

Thompson, William* — G — 11 Cav — 1st Corp — k, Orange, '62 

Tinsley, James — F — 11 Cav 

Tinsley, William H.— F— 11 Cav— cp, '62 

True, Thomas — G — 11 Cav — D 

Tuning, Benjamin — Grays 

Tyree, Larkin B.— K— 52 

Tyree, W. W. 

Vance, Charles — Grays — D 

Venable, William G— k Cedar Run '62 

Vess, George W.— K— 52— k Cedar Run '62 

Vess, Jacob — Grays — D 

Wallace, Andrew — G — 11 Ca^ — mt Wd — Patterson's Creek 


Wallace, Christopher R.*— F— 11 Cav— D 

Wallace, John S. — Sunrise 

Wallace, M. W.— 11 Cav— 3d Corp — cp, Darkesville— d, Camp Chase '62 

Wallace, William H. — Lewiston, Wash. 

Walton, Benjamin F. — K — 52 — Capt — mstwd Port Republic '62 

Walton, John A.— K— 52— k, Port Republic, '62 

Walton, Thomas— F— 11 Cav— K 

Ware, A. J— F— 11 Cav— Capt— D— 1898 

Warwick, John A.*— G— 11 Cav— 3d Lt— D, 1900 

Warwick, J. W., Jr.— G — 11 Cav— Hot Springs 

Wilfong, Jacob— F— 11 Cav— Hot Springs 

Wilkenson, James— 'F — 11 Cav — D 

Wilkenson, Robert — G — 11 Cav — Warm Springs 

Williams, Anthony M.* — G — 11 Cav 

Williams, Charles — Grays — D 

Williams, E. B.— F— 11 Cav— 1st Corp— cp '62 

Williams, Erasmus F.*— >G — 11 Cav— Hot Springs 

Williams, Harry— G— 11 Cav 

Williams, James* — G — 11 Cav 

Williams, Lewis H.*— G— 11 Cav 

Williams, Thomas — K — 52 

Williams, T. J.— F— 11 Cav— 'Healing Springs 

Wilson, William— K— 52 

Windom, John — F — 11 Cav 

Windom, Charles W.— K— 52 

Wine, Robert E. 

Withrow, Jacob E.— 'G— 11 Cav 

Witt, J. J. 

Wood, P. A.— F— 11 Cav— d, prison 

Wood, Frank — Grays — d, prison 

Woodzell, William — G — 11 Cav — Warm Springs 

Woodzell, George— K— 52 

Woodzell, Benjamin — Grays — D 

Wright, John — Grays 



N THE northeast of Bath is the elevated, fertile valley 
lying between Walker's and Shenandoah mountains. 
The summers are cool, the scenery is attractive, the graz- 
ing is superior. The position is on the natural route 
used by the Harrisonburg and Warm Springs Turnpike. The tim- 
bered mountains, containing deposits of iron ore, give the locality a 
prospective industrial importance. Last, but not least, this belt of up- 
land, known as Cloverdale, or the Wilderness, is associated with some 
interesting events in American history. 

John Mathews, an immigrant from Ulster, settled about 1742 
in Rockbridge County a little above Balcony Falls. Of his ten chil- 
dren Sampson and George acquired fame and fortune. When only 
about twenty-one years old, Sampson was a reader in the "chapel of 
care" near his father's home. His services were discontinued in 1759 
owing to the partial depopulation of the neighborhood as a result of 
the Indian war. In 1762, or perhaps earlier, these brothers went 
into the mercantile business at Staunton. Their store, which was at 
the northeast corner of Beverly and Augusta streets, seems to have 
been on the lot which they purchased in 1760 for $100. Their busi- 
ness prospered and they opened stores at other points. With Jacob 
Lockhart as a partner they conducted one at Lexngton. They also 
acquired considerable land. In 1765 they bought a large tract near 
Staunton between the famous hills known as Betsy Bell and Mary 
Gray. In the same year they purchased 1200 acres on Elk Run, this 
being the starting-point of their Cloverdale estate. The price was 
61 cents an acre. Five years later they patented 2080 acres adjacent. 
They also owned several small tracts on the Cowpasture. 

Like most Virginians of the time previous to the war of 1861, 
Sampson and George Mathews preferred the country to the town. 
They at length made their home on the Cloverdale purchase, George 
styling his residence "Market Hill." He lived here until 1785. 
Sampson removed to Augusta in 1791. A little before the outbreak 
of the Revolution in 1775 the brothers built a store at Cloverdale. 


Their success in business demonstrated their executive ability. Be- 
ing also of great energy and influence, they were drawn irresistibly 
into public and military life. Sampson was nominated for a seat on 
the county court in 1765, when he could not have been more than 
twenty-eight years old. He was by this time the proprietor of the most 
fashionable of the hostelries at Staunton. George was likewise a 
member of the court and in 1770 was sheriff of Augusta. In 1776 
he represented the county in the House of Burgesses. 

In the Point Pleasant campaign, Sampson Mathews had charge 
of the commissary department of the army under Lewis. As a colo- 
nel of militia he saw active service in the war for American Inde- 
pendence. In July, 1781, he was quelling the tory organization of Wil- 
liam Ward in Pendleton. A little later he was leading his regiment 
in the Yorktown campaign. In the preceding year he was a member 
of the State Senate. He favored the formation of Bath and took an 
active part in its organization. He died in Augusta in 1807 at the 
age pf about seventy. His first wife, to whom he was married in 
1759, was Mary, a sister to his partner, Jacob Lockhart. Other 
sisters were the wives of Matthew Arbuckle and William Ward of 
Greenbrier. The last wife was Mary, a daughter of Jacob Warwick. 
His sons identified themselves with Greenbrier County. It is curious 
to note that in spite of the services of Colonel Mathews he was so lax 
in the matter of intoxicants as to expose himself to the action of the 
grand jury by selling them contrary to the regulations of law. 

The following is one of his official letters during the Revolution: 

Cloverdale 26th Sep 1781 

I Reed your Excellencys favor (of the 14th Instant) on the 24th I 
have ordered 200 beef Cattle & 30 Waggons Loaded with stores & Spirits 
to be at Colo Esoms ordinary on Saturday the 6th nex month & So proceed 
with all Expedition To the army & Expect at Least 150 or 160 head of 
Cattle & 20 or 25 Waggons will at that Time make their appearance 

I also will forward in about 5 Days after 80 or 100 cattle & 5 or 6 
waggons, which will be the whole that Posibly can be furnished from ye 
County. I have the honor to be with Much Esteem & Respect 

Your Excellencys 

obt humbl Servt 

Samp Mathews 

It was the younger brother, George, who became the more prom- 


inent man. When only twenty-two years old he led a band against 
the Indians and was victor in a sharp skirmish, the foe losing nine 
of their number, against three on his own side. In the Point Pleasant 
campaign he commanded a company under Colonel Charles Lewis. 
Not one of his 60 men was under six feet in height, and many stood 
six feet two inches. It was these husky fellows who helped to decide 
the day at Point Pleasant. His company was one of the three that 
turned the flank of Cornstalk's line and caused the Indians to think 
the Fincastle regiment had come to the rescue. 

Soon after the Revolution broke out, George Mathews was made 
lieutenant colonel of the Ninth Virginia Regment of the Continental 
Line. For a while he was stationed east of the Chesapeake. He 
then joined the army under Washington and in February, 1777, was 
promoted to the rank of colonel. At Germantown, his regiment, 400 
strong, was a part of the left wing under General Greene. This 
able leader had turned the British right, and the Americans were on 
the point of gaining a complete victory, when a thick fog settled, over 
the field. In the confusion that followed, the "tall Virginians" of 
Mathews were outflanked, but did not surrender until reduced to the 
equivalent of a single company. Colonel Mathews received several 
wounds in this battle and was not exchanged until December, 1781. 
His health being somewhat impaired by his long captivity, he re- 
tired to Market Hill to provide for the needs of his large family. 
General Greene, who put a high estimate on his ability, importuned 
him to join the army in the South. Mathews at first demurred. He 
wrote Greene that he had been in easy circumstances when the war be- 
gan, but was now "with care & rigid economy endavoring to pre- 
sarve from rail want a wife and eight helpless children." But he 
yielded to Greene's wishes and took command of the Third Virginia 
Regiment. When the British evacuated Charleston in 1782, he had 
the satisfaction of turning the tables on his late captors by riding into 
the city by the side of his commander-in-chief. 

The visit to the South led to his removal to Georgia in 1785. As 
a representative from his adopted state he sat in the First Congress, 
1789-91. He was governor of Georgia in 1787-8 and again in 1793- 
6. He was also a member of its first constitutional convention. Dur- 
ing hs second term as governor, Mathews signed very reluctantly and 
under pressure the charter of the Yazoo company to lands in what 


is now Alabama and Mississippi. But the concern was fraudulent 
and shares of its stock were distributed among members of the leg- 
islature to influence their votes. After a hot fight the graft was ex- 
posed and came to grief. The governor was not designedly a party 
to what went into history as the "Yazoo land steal," and did not line 
his own pockets through its corruption. But his popularity was tem- 
porarily eclipsed. John Adams nominated him for the governorship 
of Mississippi Territory, but withdrew his name owing to the re- 
luctance of the senate. Mathews was so angry that he rode horse- 
back to Philadelphia, strode into the president's room wearing his old 
sword and his three-cocked hat, and gave the first magistrate of the 
land a a "tongue lashing." But as he was a Federalist, like Adams 
himself, he was soon pacified. 

At the outset of the war of 1812, Mathews was a brigadier gen- 
eral of militia and was stationed on the frontier of Florida, then under 
the ownership of Spain. He was also appointed one of two commis- 
sioners to receive Florida, if offered to the United States, or to seize 
it if any third power attempted to do so. Mathews was an expan- 
sionist and believed in taking over the peninsula. He abetted the in- 
surgents in Florida, occupied the fort on Amelia Island, put out the 
Spanish officials, and raised the American flag. Spain remonstrated 
at what was technically a breach of international law, and as the ad- 
ministration did not choose to incur the risk of fighting two enemies 
at the same time, Mathews was removed. He was on his way to 
Washington to talk to Madison as he had talked to Adams, but was 
taken ill at Savannah and died there in 1812 at the age of 73. 

General Mathews was a short, heavily built man, with a florid 
face and light red hair. He walked very erect with his head thrown 
back. He was of eccentric manner and very positive convictions, not 
conceding that any man was his superior except Washington himself. 
He was married in 1762 to Ann Paul. Two of his sons were given 
land in Ohio and two daughters had lands in Kentucky. 

According to some authorities, Mathews County, Virginia, was 
named for George Mathews. 

In the year of his return to Augusta, Sampson Mathews mort- 
gaged the Cloverdale tract of 2080 acres to Gabriel Jones, a once 
famous lawyer who lived near Port Republic. Shortly afterward a 


portion was conveyed to Samuel Blackburn and the remainder to 
other persons. 

General Blackburn, who married Anne, a daughter of George 
Mathews, in 1785, was born about 1758 and was admitted to the 
bar in 1796. He was a graduate of Liberty Hall Academy — now 
Washington and Lee University — and a soldier of the Revolution. 
He went first to Kentucky and then to Georgia, to practice law, but 
the clamor against his father-in-law caused him to leave the latter 
state in disgust. He returned to Virginia and built the old brick 
mansion on what is now called the "Wilderness" property. In 1824 
he had 1000 acres under cultivation. Blackburn was an orator and 
a criminal lawyer of repute. While sitting in the General Assembly 
he secured the passage of an anti-duelling law. In politics he was a 
Federalist. He died in 1835, freeing his 40 slaves by will and giving 
$500 to the Staunton Bible Society. There were no children and the 
estate fell into neglect. 

John Kephart had been a lessee of Cloverdale in 1789. The prop- 
erty at length passed into the hands of Louis C. Barley, of Alexan- 
dria, who has acquired mountain lands adjacent until his holdings 
aggregate 47,000 acres. 

Judge Barley is a great friend to industrial development and has 
put himself to much effort in the way of developing the natural re- 
sources of Bath. It is through his exertions that a railroad spur has 
been built up Mill Creek to afford an outlet for the millions of feet of 
merchantable lumber on the mountain sides. There is a reasonable 
hope that this beginning will lead to a permanent railroad. This 
would prove of much moment in the future development of this and 
nearby counties. 



HOUGH not a portion of Bath, the main valley of the 
Calfpasture is closely associated with this county. At the 
time of early settlement it was undoubtedly open ground, 
and was shut off from the country around Staunton by 
timbered mountains. Access to the Cowpasture was rendered easy by 
Panther Gap and by the great depression at the south end of Shenan- 
doah Mountain. Some of the pioneers, or members of their house- 
holds, speedily began to move in this direction, thus establishing ties 
of relationship and interest with the people of Bath. 

The valley of the Little Calfpasture is more distinctly a part of 
the great Valley of Virginia, and is not considered in the present 
chapter. On the other hand, Mill Creek, though coursing mainly 
in Bath, is a tributary of the Great Calfpasture. Locally, the two 
Calfpasture streams are known as Great River and Little River. 

Actual settlement on Great River can scarcely have begun much 
earlier than 1743. The author of Annals of Augusta claims that 
this valley was settled quite as early as the district around Staunton, 
yet offers no evidence in proof. The records of Augusta, especially 
the muster rolls of 1742, do not support the statement. 

The first constables were Robert Graham and William Hodge, 
appointed February 28, 1745. William Jameson was made a cap- 
tain the same year to succeed Alexander Dunlap, appointed in Au- 
gust, 1743. In 1744 Henry Gay was made a lieutenant. 

Acting under an order of council, John Lewis and James Patton 
surveyed in 1744 a tract nearly fifteen miles long, but nowhere more 
than about one and one-eighth miles broad. Their map shows it 
cross-sectioned into twenty-three lots, the first lying where Goshen 
now stands and the last rather to the north of Deerfield. With a 
single exception, every lot had already been taken by some settler. 
The following tabular statement shows consecutively the number of 
the lot, the name of the settler, the acreage, the purchase price, when 
stated in the deed, and the early transfers of title. In those in- 
stances where the deed was issued to some other individual than the 


original settler, the name is given in brackets. The name of a wife is 
also thus given. 

1. Alexander Dunlap (John Dunlap)— 625— $68.69— 295 acres sold to 
Robert Dunlap, 1761, for $333.33. 

2. William Jameson— 170— $20.87. 

3. Thomas Gilham— 168— $18.S6--sold, 1752, by Thomas (Margaret) 
Gilham to James Lockridge for same price — resold, 1767, by John Dicken- 
son to William Thompson for $200. 

4. Robert Crockett — 370 — $41.15 — sold, 1760, by pioneer's sons: — James 
(Martha) and Robert, Jr. (Janet), both of Mecklenburg County, N. C, to 
William Thompson for $200—295 acres sold by Thompson, 1767, for $166.67. 

5. David Davis — 290 — $29— *old, 1749, by Lewis and Patton to John 

6. Thomas Weems— 525— $31.10— sold, 1768, by Thomas (Eleanor) 
Weems to William Given for $723.33. 

7. Henry Gay — 694 — $33.39 — 100 acres sold, 1769, to James Frasier 
for $33.33. 

8. Francis Donally— 266— $30.02. 

9. Robert Gay— 519— '$57.89. 

10. Samuel Hodge — 449— $47.97. 

11. John Miller— 316— $70.08— sold by John (Ann) Miller to John Ram- 
say, 1757. 

12. Loftus Pullin— 252 (240?)— $26.92— sold to James Shaw, 1760, for 
$30— sold by Shaw to John Ramsay, 1768, for $150. 

13. Robert Bratton— 834— $96.67 — +00 acres sold to James Bratton, 1771, 
for $133.33. 

14. James Lockridge — 280 — ? — sold by James (Isabella) Lockridge to 
Andrew Lockridge, 1764, for $66.67. 

15. John Graham — 696 — $79.58 — 150 acres sold to James Graham (son), 
1763, for $16.67. 

16. Robert Gwin — 544 — ? — sold by William (Agnes) Gwin to Robert 
Lockridge, 1766, for $575. 

17. John Preston— 1054— $31.15— 520 acres sold by William (Susanna) 
Preston to Mary Preston, 1762, for $333.33. The same sold by Mary Pres- 
ton to Robert Lockridge, 1763, for $366.67. 

18. William Warrick— 1060— $118.67— sold, 1745, to John Kincaid. 

19. James Carlile— 600— $65.39— 250 sold, 1753, to John Carlile, and 
sold by him, 1762, to Thomas Hughart for $166.67—200 acres sold by John 
(Mary) Carlile to Thomas Adams, 1796, for $391.67. 

20. Jacob Clements— 457— $51.67— 202 acres sold, 1751. by Jacob (Mary) 
Clements to John Campbell for $66.67, and sold by John (Ann) Campbell, 
1768, to James Carlile for $250. 

21. John Campbell— 308— $34.17— 208 acres sold by Samuel Campbell to 
William Lockridge, 1769, for $713.33. 

22. James Carter— 300— $33.38— sold to Robert Gay, 1746. 

23. John Wilson— 600— $66. 


Not all the original claimants were actual settlers on the survey, 
but lived on the Beverly or Borden grants and took lands here for 
speculation or for their sons. This seems to be the case with Crock- 
ett, Davis, Donally, Miller, and Preston. Miller is named as a res- 
ident of Albemarle. 

The first deeds were issued mainly in April and July, 1745, and in 
Orange County. Carlile, Graham, and Weems did not take deeds 
until 1748. 

Mention of the Calfpasture families in general is given in a later 
chapter. Thomas Adams came from New Kent County and was a 
local magnate. He was one of the exceedingly few men of his time 
to own a "chariot." By his will he freed a slave, "as there is no man 
to whom I consider myself under greater obligations than to my slave, 

James Carter was a millwright, and his mill is named in early 
road orders. He was in the Carolinas in 1748, but must have return- 
ed. He died in 1768. 

The Calfpasture families not only took a very prominent part in 
settling the valleys of Bath and Highland, and afterward those of 
Greenbrier and Pocahontas, but they helped to people the uplands 
of the Carolinas. They were also prompt in taking a share in the 
settling of Kentucky. In 1779, Captain James Gay and Alexander 
Dunlap, Jr., headed a party which settled in the blue-grass region of 
that state and founded Pisgah church, said to be the first Presbyterian 
organization in Kentucky. The school which grew up by the side of 
the church developed into Transylvania University. 

Gay, who was but twenty-one years old when he turned west- 
ward, had served under Andrew Lockridge. His second wife was 
Elizabeth, a daughter of John Dunlap. He was himself a son of 
James Gay, who married Jean Warwick. Alexander Dunlap, Jr., 
married his sister, Agnes. Major Samuel Stevenson, whose mother 
was a daughter of John Warwick, was a third member of the emi- 
grating party, and he also wedded a Gay. Thus the Gays, Dunlaps, 
and Stevensons, as well as the Hamiltons, Kinkeads, Warwicks, and 
other Calfpasture families, have gained both affluence and prominence 
in the Bluegrass State and other commonwealths of the Great West. 
A Warwick gave his name in a changed spelling to Warrick County, 
Indiana. Lieutenant-Governor Walkup, of California, was a de- 



scendant of Captain John Walkup, who came to the Calfpasture 
about 1760. 

So great was this exodus that in time it nearly extinguished the 
Calfpasture surnames of the Revolutionary period. 

Because of the homogeneity between the early populations of Bath 
and the Calfpasture, there were many persons who thought the latter 
region should be included in the new county. Geographic considera- 
tions appeared to link it with Bath rather than Augusta. But there 
was a difference of opinion on this matter among the inhabitants of 
the Calfpasture itself, and the stronger voice prevailed. 

Rocky Spring church was built on an acre deeded in 1773 by 
Andrew Kincaid, Jr., to the "trustees of a congregation of dissent- 
ers." These trustees were James Bratton, Lancelot Graham, Andrew- 
Hamilton, Thomas Hughart, William Kincaid, and Andrew Lock- 

It seems to have been on the Calfpasture that Charles Knight 
was to have $60 for teaching one year, every half Saturday or every 
other Saturday to be free time. In case of an Indian alarm Knight 
was to have the privilege of being lodged in the neighborhood. 

The names below are appended to a petition of May 27, 1779. 
The signers are not in favor of being included in a new county lying 
mainly to the west of Shenandoah Mountain : 

Armstrong, Archible 
Armstrong, John 
Armstrong, Thomas 
Armstrong, William 
Bell, John 
Black, John (1) 

Black, John (2) 

Bratton, Adam 
Bratton, Robert 
Byrnes, John 
Carlisle, James 
Carlisle, John 
Cashader, Micol 
Clark, James 
Davis. Charles 
Divet, Tolly 
Elliot, John 
Fortner, William 
Fulton, James 
Fulton, John 
Fulton, Thomas 

Gay. William 
Griffith, James 
Graham, John 
Graham, John 
Graham, William 
Gwin, Robert (1) 
Gwin, Robert (2) 
Hamilton, Alexander 
Hamilton, Andrew 
Henderson, James 
Henry, James 
Hoge, John 
Kinkead, David 
Kinkead. John 
Kinkead, Thomas (1) 
Kinkead, Thomas (2) 
Kinkead, William 
Martin, Samuel 
Martin, William 
Marton, John 
McCutchen, John 

McCutchen, Joseph 
McCutchen, Robert 
McCutchen, William 
Meek, Daniel 
Meek, John 
Meek, Samuel 
Meek, Thomas 
Moorhead, Matthew 
Plunkett, John 
Ramsay, John 
Reagh, James 
Right, William 
Stewart, Alexander 
Vacob, Joseph 
Vachub, Matthew 
Vachube, John 
Vachube, Robert 
Walker, John 
White, Archible 
Wright, John 



Additional Names on an Undated Petition. 

Aikman, William 
Armstrong, W. M. 
Barker, Edward 
Berry, James 
Butler, Patrick 
Carson, Thomas 
Craig, Alexander 
Craig, James 

Craig, William 
Hodge, Andrew 
Jones, William 
Lockridge, John 
Lockridge. Samuel 
McConnell, Alexr 
McNight, Tadey 
McCutchen, James 

Montgomery, John 
Mongomery, John 
Meteer, William 
Moor, William 
Page, James 
Peery, James 
Thompson, Alexander 
Youll, William 



HERE are really two Bath Counties in Virginia. They 
occupy the same geographic area, but are very unlike 
one another. 

There is first the old Bath, given to agriculture and 
stockraising, and peopled by the descendants of the pioneers and the 
later comers. Since the war of 1861 its advance has been at a leisure- 
ly pace, such innovations as modern farm machinery, the silo, the 
telephone, and the automobile being primarily due to influences from 
without. Toward the other Bath, its attitude is very much that of 
a spectator. In some measure the old Bath is directly or indirectly 
supported by the other, but between them there is in the nature of the 
case but little community of feeling. 

There is second the tourist Bath, created by the mineral springs, 
the mountain climate, and the shortness of time in which it may be 
reached from the great centers of American population. This Bath is 
largely though not wholly localized in Warm Springs valley. The 
characteristic human element in the tourist Bath is the throng of vis- 
itors, most numerous in spring and fall. To these must be added the 
families who have built mansions or cottages, so as to make this valley 
an adjunct home. And as a great share of the inflow is from the city 
of New York, distant only a night's journey by the express train, it 
is hardly an exaggeration to call Hot Springs a detached suburb of 
the great American metropolis. The people who frequent the hos- 
telries of Warm Springs valley are mainly of the wealthy and exclu- 
sive classes. It is thus that between them and the native element, 
save in exceptional instances, there can be little in common. Each 
Bath lives to itself. 

Dependent on and called into being by the tourist Bath is a third 
population which is characteristically a labor class. This element is 
quite considerable in number and quite varied in composition. It is 
largely derived from without the county, and in a great degree it is 
concentrated in Warm Springs valley. This class has had much to 
do with the steady increase of the total population. To the north is 


Highland with an almost exclusive agricultural interest and a slowly 
declining population. To the south is Alleghany, where a diversified 
industrial interest heavily dominates, and because of which the aggre- 
gate population tends to increase. 

The visitor who makes a comprehensive tour of Bath is struck by 
the seeming smallness of the number of people on the farms, and by 
the large areas of hill and mountain which remain very nearly as 
much a wilderness as they were when the first pathfinders arrived. 
The river-bottom lands have been continuously occupied since the 
dawn of settlement. Not a few of the holdings are owned by progres- 
sive farmers and are valuable properties. But the natural increase in 
population has ever been much more inclined to migrate to newer re- 
gions than to reduce to tillage the much inferior uplands. No large 
inroad has been made into these, and on some roads one may travel 
several miles without passing a house. The imperfect railroad fa- 
cilities are somewhat adverse to intensive farming, which has the ef- 
fect of arresting the decline in population of strictly rural communities. 
Yet there is an increased demand for the minor products of the farm, 
and a beginnig has been made in commercial orcharding. 

Turning to Warm Springs valley, whose limestone soils point to 
grazing farms, one is impressed by the extent to which this exception- 
al basin has been turned into a recreation ground. The present con- 
siderable population is dependent on the soil only in a slight degree. 

The main line of the Chesapeake and Ohio railroad touches just 
one limited stretch of good agricultural land; that which is immediate- 
ly tributary to Millboro Station, where quite a village has grown up. 
After coursing through it two miles, the steel track plunges into a 
tunnel, beyond which it follows the exceedingly rough and almost un- 
peopled valley of Padd's Creek. The branch line from Covington 
merely traverses a few miles of the indifferent Cedar Creek valley and 
reaches only to the upper end of Hot Springs Gap. 

A complete railroad development of the Virginias would include 
a through line from the Potomac to the upper James by way of the 
South Branch and Jackson's River valleys. At all events, an electric 
line through this long district could be of great service to it, and the 
necessary motive power could be secured by harnessing the rapidly 
flowing rivers. 

The metallic resources of this county are not inconsiderable, but 


must await the hour when the ores that are more readily reduced 
have diminished greatly in amount. 

The future of Bath is to be read in its past and present. It will 
remain to a somewhat increasing extent a recreation field for the tour- 
ist element. Agriculture will slowly become intensive and its output 
more valuable. Relatively, the rural population will hold its own, 
and is not likely to be supplanted in any marked degree by a tide of 
new immigration. The highways will very noticeably improve, both 
with respect to roadbed and bridges. The present degree of incon- 
venience in reaching the outside towns and markets will diminish. 
In a word, we may confidently expect that the county will develop 
into a still better place in which to live. 

Since 1860, the increase in population is shown in these census 

1870—3795 1900—5595 

1880^4482 1910—6538 


Considered by districts, there are these contrasts between 1890 and 

1890 1910 

Cedar Creek 867 2472 

Millboro 1542 1418 

Warm Springs 1058 1360 

Williamsville 1120 1258 

In 1910, the whites numbered 5362 and the negroes 1176. Of 
the whites, 115 were of foreign birth, and 134 were of foreign or 
mixed parentage. Of the foreign born, 28 were from Italy, 20 from 
Greece, 17 from Germany, 15 from Sweden, 14 from Ireland, and 
12 from England. Only 12 of the 115 had taken the trouble to make 
themselves fully naturalized ctizens. Of the negroes 276 were class- 
ed as mulattoes. The white males were 2821 and the white females 
2541. The males of voting age were 1818, although but 527 of the 
number cast ballots for the three leading presidential candidates of 
1912. Of these 1818, there were 111 illiterate whites and 83 il- 
literate negroes. The persons between the ages of 6 and 14 were 


1332, of whom 842 were in school. The dwellings numbered 1195 
and the families 1225. The average of persons to the family was 
5.3, against 4.9 for the state at large. 

The 563 farms of the county had a valuation per acre of $6.05. 
They covered 41,323 acres of improved land, which is one-ninth of 
the entire surface. Of the farms 13.2 per cent, were operated by 
tenants. There were 1475 horses, 80 mules, 5980 cattle, 3711 hogs, 
and 16608 sheep and goats. The value of all farm property, including 
improvements and domestic animals, was $2,958,186. The acreage 
and yield of the leading farm crops present this exhibit: 

Corn 4,405 acres 112,895 bushels 

Wheat 2,567 acres 36,816 bushels 

Oats 459 acres 6,912 bushels 

Potatoes 198 acres 18,345 bushels 

Hay 8,027 acres 8,645 tons 



LLEGHANY was carved out of Bath, Botetourt, and 
Monroe, Bath contributing the most important portion. 
The Act of Assembly creating the county was passed 
January 5, 1822. A portion of Monroe was annexed in 
1843, and a very small portion of Bath in 1847. On the other hand 
a part of Alleghany was annexed to Craig in 1856. 

Nearly all the preceding chapters of this book deal very much in 
matters which concern the Alleghany area as well as the Bath. Also, 
what has been said of the general characteristics of the mountains, 
streams, soils, climate, plants, and animals of Bath applies nearly as 
well to Alleghany. The climate of the valleys is a little warmer be- 
cause the altitudes are less. 

A striking difference in the physical geography lies in the circum- 
stance that in this locality every mountain ridge east of the Alleghany 
Front opens to give passage to the James, just as the corresponding 
ridges 200 miles northward open to give passage to the Potomac. 
In each instance nature has indicated a route for an important line 
bf railway between the Atlantic seaboard and the Great West. As a 
consequence of this continuous cleft in the ridges of Alleghany, Jack- 
son's and Cowpasture rivers, and Dunlap and Potts creeks are con- 
verging streams, and each is followed by a railroad line. And since 
the mountains of this county are stored with mineral wealth, the trans- 
portation and industrial interests very much outweigh the agricul- 

The counties of Pocahontas and Alleghany were created during 
the same session of the legislature. It is said that the intention was 
to call the western county Alleghany and the eastern Pocahontas, but 
that the heedlessness of the engrossing clerk caused the names to be 
transposed. The first should have had the name Alleghany, since it 
lies in the midst of what are in this latitude the loftiest heights of 
the Appalachian system. 


Alleghany has a length of 40 miles, a breadth of 26, and an area 
of 462 square miles. The census figures by decades are these: 

1830—2816 1880—5586 

1840—2749 1890—9283 

1850—3515 1900—16330 

1860—6765 1910—19921 

By districts the population in 1910 was as follows: 

Boiling Spring 2794 

Clifton 4415 

Covington 6974 

Clifton Forge (city) 5748 

By the last Federal census Alleghany had 574 farms, of which one- 
sixth were operated by tenants. The valuation per acre was $7.43. 
There were 32,699 acres of improved land, covering about one-ninth 
of the county. The value of all farm property, inclusive of improve 
ments and domestic animals, was $2,092,552. There were 1267 
horses, 68 mules, 4563 cattle, 2487 hogs, and 5558 sheep and goats. 
The leading crops were as follows with respect to acreage and yield: 


5,023 acres 

121,048 bushels 


2,535 acres 

28,456 bushels 


659 acres 

8,389 bushels 


434 acres 

43,159 bushels 


4,210 acres 

4,376 tons 

Alleghany has three times as many people as Bath, yet its total 
farm valuation is 3 per cent. less. The leading farm crops rank about 
the same, but Alleghany stands much lower in its number of farm 
animals. It outclasses the older county in such minor crops as po- 
tatoes and cabbages, and in orchard and small fruits. The explana- 
tion of the above facts is quite plain. Outside of the limited bottom 
lands, neither county is well enough suited to general farming. The 
uplands are too rough and stony. But in grazing and fruit culture, 
and in some other specialized lines, these counties can hold their own 
against many others. The future of agriculture in this mountain 


region lies not in the time-honored field tillage, which is adapted on- 
ly to level or nearly level lands, but in those special products which are 
indicated by soil, climate, and contour, and by the nearness to large 
markets. Mountain counties are constrained to give much attention 
to general field crops so long as they are remote from market. But 
as soon as this remoteness is removed and they are brought into com- 
petition with prime agricultural districts, general tillage is forced into 
the background, no matter how ample the marketing facilities may be. 
The highways of Alleghany are in better order than those of 
Bath, and a considerable mileage is macadamized. 

As early as 1800 there were several furnaces and forges with a 
capacity of one to three tons a day. They used charcoal and water- 
driven triphammers. Stoves, pots, skillets, and pipe were manufac- 
tured before the war of 1861. 

The mountains of this county contain immense deposits of iron 
ore. There are now six large furnaces, but it is useless to expect that 
iron mining will assume very great dimensions, so long as there are 
large beds of loose ore in the Lake Superior region that can be scooped 
up with a steam shovel. 

The other mineral resources are of much importance. They in- 
clude very large deposits of limestone, in addition to cement rock, 
marl, magnesia, brick, clay, and slate. 

Among the scenic features and natural curiosities is the cascade 
where Falling Spring Run, itself the outlet of a mammoth spring, 
passes through Little Mountain by a watergap. Toward the lower 
end of the gap the waters plunge 70 feet over a precipice of marl and 
enter the deep lower valley leading to Jackson's River. One is now 
almost compelled to speak of the fall in the past tense. The waters 
have been turned aside in order to give better excess to the immense 
cliff of marl which the stream has built up from the leachings of the 
limestone strata in the upper valley. The manufacturing plant is 
located at the railroad station of Barber on Jackson's River. From 
the standpoint of the picturesque, it is to be regretted that the cas- 
cade has been done away with, at least for a time. 

A waterfall of far greater volume occurs in Jackson's River, where 
that stream passes through White Mountain between Covington and 
Clifton Forge. It was described by Jefferson. A little below Clif- 
ton Forge the same river passes through the Iron Gate, a short, sharp- 


sided gorge that has much the same form as the notch which is cut 
into a tree in the process of felling. A railroad track follows one side 
of the defile and a wagon road the other. Midway between Coving- 
ton and Hot Springs is the Natural Well. The opening is only about 
three feet in diameter, but not far below the surface the well widens 
very greatly, forming a considerable cavern. 

The James River and Kanawha Canal was projected to Coving- 
ton, but never built above Buchanan. A convention was held at 
Covington, October 19, 1846, to discuss the improvement of the 
James and the Great Kanawha. Delegates came from the county it- 
self, and from Bath, Botetourt, Greenbrier, Kanawha, Mercer, Po- 
cahontas, Roanoke, and Rockbridge. The meeting was in favor of 
bringing the canal to Covington and then securing a railroad. If 
this were denied it was claimed that the region would be almost de- 
populated by emigration to the West. It was shown that most of 
the counties represented were virtually without a market, owing to 
the prohibitive cost of transportation. Coal, wheat, and fruit could 
not be sent abroad, and the attention of the farmers had to be centered 
on stock growing. With the canal at Covington, it was asserted that 
there would be a probable increase yearly of 15,000 tons of traffic in 
farm produce and 8,000 tons of merchandise. The cost per ton in 
moving freight could thus be reduced from $5 to $1.50. 

In 1857 the rails were laid to Jackson's River. Ten years later, 
construction was resumed, and by the end of 1872 there was a through 
line to the Ohio. The influence on the later history of Alleghany has 
been very marked. 

Covington was designated as a town in 1833 and incorporated in 
1873. In 1840 it contained about 50 houses. In 1867 it was still 
an inland village looking much like those county seats that still lie 
remote from the railroad. Even in 1890 the population was only 
704. Since then Covington has steadily grown into a little city 
that was credited with 4234 people in 1910, and is larger today. Its 
industrial interests are very important. Far in the lead is the ex- 
tensive plant of the West Virginia Pulp and Paper Company, opened 
in 1900. Others are an extract plant — the only one of its kind in the 
United States — an iron furnace, a tannery, machine shops, brick 
works, an ice factory, and two large flouring mills. The pulp and 
paper works are the second largest in the country. Most of the 


growth of Covington having taken place within the last twenty 
years, the town has a quite modern appearance. In fact, the size of 
the place is not in proportion to its industrial and commercial im- 

Twelve miles down Jackson's River is Clifton Forge, an incor- 
porated city and politically independent of Alleghany County. It is 
situated among very bold river-hills, and unlike what is true of Cov- 
ington, there is a very inconsiderable amount of arable land in the 
near vicinity. Clifton Forge is the metropolis of the county, having 
a population in 1910 of 5748. Originally the site of an iron furnace, 
Clifton Forge is now almost exclusively a railroad town ,and is a di- 
vision point in the Chesapeake and Ohio system. What there is of 
river-bottom is covered by the railway yard with its extensive sidings. 
It is here that the James River division leaves the main line and runs 
with a constant down grade to Richmond, 231 miles distant. This 
was at first an independent road, and was built as the Richmond and 
Alleghany. The easy down grade is why this line is used mainly for 
freight, all express trains using the main line. 

The minor towns of the county, such as Lowmoor, Iron Gate, 
and Longdale, are exclusively industrial, and are mainly devoted to 
the smelting of iron. The population of Iron Gate by the last census 
was 600. 

The first meeting of the county court was held at Covington, 
March 18, 1822. William Herbert was the first surveyor and sher- 
iff, Oliver Callaghan the first county clerk, Thorns Crutchheld the 
first commonwealth's attorney, and William S. Holloway the first 
commissioner of the revenue. 

The number of men liable to poll tax was 534. The first levy 
was $1361.70, out of which there was an appropriation of $1068 for 
the first county buildings. 

The following is a list of the justices previous to the time when 
they became elective instead of appointive. The names with a star 
are those who were present on the opening day of the first court. The 
names with a date are those whose commissions were subsequent to 
July, 1823: 


Allen, John— 1831 Keyser, Joseph D* 

Aritt, Michael* Kincaid, Robert 

Aritt, John King, Charles— 1839 

Bishop, Jacob — 1846 Knox, Rev. Elisha 

Boswell, John L. Pitzer, John L. — 1846 

Callaghan, John* Mann, Moses H. 

Callaghan, Charles Mann, Lewis T— 1846 

Carpenter, Samuel— 1838 Morton, William F— 1846 

Crow, John Persinger, John 

Davis, Jesse* Persinger, Peter 

Harry, John — 1831 Persinger, Lee — 1839 

Harnsbarger, Sebas Sancy, Sampson 

Haynes, William H. Smith, Henry — 1831 

Holloway, John* Steele, Isaac 

Holloway, William G. Warren, James — 1839 
Hook, Stephen 

Of the original board, Massie and Keyser were empowered by 
the legislature to administer the oath of office to the other members. 
The justices elected in 1852 were as follows: 

First District: Peter Helminstoller, William Herbert, John C. Taylor, 
James Warren. 

Second District: Jacob Bishop, Samuel Brown, Jr., Lewis F. Mann, 
Thomas Richardson. 

Third District: John A. Black, James Harnsbarger, John J. Paxton, 
James Shanklin. 

Fourth District: Samuel Carpenter, Charles King, Madison Hook, Wil- 
liam F. Morton. 

The recommendations by the first court for officers of the militia 
were these: Colonel, John Crow; Lieutenant-Colonel, John Per- 
singer; Major, William H. Haynes; Captains, Moses H. Mann, 
Anthony Brennemer, George Arritt; Lieutenants, Jacob Fudge, 
Moses Smith. 

Further recommendations for the First Battalion, 128th Regi- 
ment, were as follows: Captain, John Callaghan; Lieutenant, Cor- 
nelius Vanstavern ; Ensigns, David Johnson, William Mann, Joseph 
Pitzer. For the Second Battalion, they were Robert Griffith as cap- 
tain; William G. Holloway and Barton Shawver as lieutenants, and 
George Pitzer and Alexander Johnston as ensigns. 

The first tavern license was granted to Fleming Keyser. 

The town of Covington, as orignally laid out, comprised 120 lots, 
each a quarter acre in size. 


The first board of school commissioners — for 1843 — were Joseph 
Damron, Andrew Damron, Charles King, John McD. Mann, Alex- 
ander Rayhill, Sampson Sawyers, Henry Smith, Isaac Stull, James 

In 1860 there were several naturalizations, especially of Irish. 
There were hundreds of that nationality in the county during the con- 
struction of the Virginia Central Railroad. 

We now pass to the leading documentary features of the War of 
1861, as given in the county order book. 


The grand jury for the March term was thus constituted: William F. 
Morton (foreman), John H. Stone, Jordan Helminstoller. Asbury Matheny, 
Samuel Boyer, Peter Boyer, Dennis Callaghan, William Scott. Joel Kindell, 
Elias Hook, George Carson, Michael Karnes, Peter Dressier. 

The entire county court was present at what may be termed the first 
war session held April 27th. The members were Andrew Fudge, G. Mc- 
Donald, George Stull, Lee Persinger, Madison Hook, Thomas T. Shumaker, 
Charlton Shirkey, Beale V. Keyser, John I. Haynes, and Davis Williamson. 
At this session it was announced that two volunteer companies were organ- 
ized and on duty in a tented field, and that other companies would soon be 

For the equipment and support of these volunteer companies, there was 
an appropriation of $6000, raised by a loan. The board to adjust and set- 
tle all claims arising out of this fund were C. Bias, James Burk, William 
F. Clark, Thomas J. Daggs, Colonel Charles Dressier, William G. Hollo- 
way, Madison Hook, Edwin Jordan, John Mallow, James M. Montague, 
Lee Persinger, John L. Pitzer, William M. Scott. 

The "war sheriff" was John J. Stack. 

The poll tax was $3.50 per tithable, and there was a levy of two per 
cent, on official salaries. 


Tn March Andrew Damron was authorized in case of need to remove the 
public records to a place of greater safety. 

The levy was $6375.53. 

William C. Clark was directed in August to buy 2500 bushels of salt in 
Washington County. 

A great scarcity of wagons was reported. 

In November, William P. Rucker was arraigned under a charge of 
treason for acting as provost marshal! under the Wheeling government, 
for compelling citizens to take an oath to uphold the Federal government 
fur burning the railroad bridge over the Cowpasture, for appropriating 
horses and wagons, ofr carrying off slaves, and for mortally stabbing Mi- 
chael Soice in April, 1861. 



In January, William C. Clark was employed to buy 800 bales of cot- 
ton yarn, 1000 yards of osnaburgs, and 3000 yards of brown domestic. The 
actual purchases were 225 bales of cotton and 800 yards of cotton cloth. 

Out of 595 slaves the county was required to furnish 27 between the 
ages of 18 and 45 to work in the Confederate service. 

In August there was appointed a committee of safety,, consisting of 
Thompson McAllister, Peter Byers, William F. Clark, Joseph Irvin, Charl- 
ton Shirkey, and William Damron. 

It was ordered that C. F. Johnson be paid $25 for removing the county 

Colonel Samuel Carpenter was made salt agent. 

The court states that early in the war ten per cent, of the population 
had volunteered for the Confederate service; that 200 families of soldiers 
were now in need of support; that there had been two invasions by Aver- 
ill's cavalry; that many slaves had absconded, and that if the quota of 
forty slaves asked by the War Department were insisted upon, desertions 
from the army would follow. 


W. F. Clark was authorized to borrow $10,000 to buy 2000 bushels of 
corn for destitute soldier families. 

It was announced that the Federals under Averill, Duffie, and Crook in 
their advance, and Hunter in his retreat, had taken everything they could 
lay their hands on; that there had been unprecedented drouth; and that 
it was impossible to supply the people and the soldiers unless the Con- 
federate government should release the payment of tax in kind and permit 
payment in money. 

In September wheat was worth $8.11. 

The tax on real and personal property was \Yz per cent. 


W. F. Clark was an impressing agent. 

There was a good deal of felony. 

At the special term held April 24th, a resolution was passed, stating 
that the surrender of Lee had greatly demoralized the citizens, and that both 
soldiers and citizens were taking government property by force. Captain 
John Carpenter, of Carpenter's Battery, was ordered to take possession of all 
government property now in private hands, and turn it over to the state. 

At the session of May 5th, it was represented that there was not enough 
grain on hand to support the soldier families till harvest. Twelve days 
later, the grain distributors were ordered to receive no more Confederate 
money in payment of grain, but only specie or its equivalent. 

The county court did not meet again until August 21st. 


Alleghany had only five soldiers in the Mexican War, but their 
names are not at our command. In 1843 there were only thirteen 

The real and personal property valuation in 1860 was $3,156,238. 
The churches were fifteen — nine Methodist, four Presbyterian, and 
one Union. 

We close this chapter with three legends. The first claims that 
some peaceable Indians lived in White Rock Gap near Lowmoor, and 
frequented the distillery of Michael Karnes; and that by appointment 
the nearby farmers met at the distillery, looked up the Indians, and ex- 
terminated them. 

Another states that Katherine Vanstavern taught the children of 
the four families once living on the site of Clifton Forge. An ad- 
mirer was Harry Gorman, a graduate of William and Mary College. 
Two Indians came one day to the door of the schoolroom. Gorman 
fired upon them from the woods, killing one and causing the others 
to run. Very naturally, this led to the lovers becoming engaged. 
But before they were married, Katherine was seized by five Indians 
and taken bound in a canoe to the camp of the red men lower down 
Jackson's River. Gorman saw the performance while hunting, col- 
lected a party, came upon the Indians while they were asleep, and af- 
ter several of the latter were killed, the maiden was rescued to be- 
come in due season the wfe of the rescuer. But Cornelius, the first 
of the Vanstaverns in Bath, was born in Delaware in 1756, and his 
daughter Katharine married Joseph Carson in 1822, a date much too 
recent to fit into any Indian raid into the valley of Jackson's River. 

Jacob Persinger is thought to have been born at the mouth of 
Potts Creek. When about twelve years old, he was taken with thirty 
other captives to the Shawnee towns and adopted by a squaw who 
had two boys. Boards were tied to their backs to make them straight, 
and every morning all three had to take a plunge bath, after which 
they ran about nude until their skins were dry. As a consequence of 
the treaty of 1764, the boy was brought in that year to Jackson's 
River. No one claiming him he went back to his foster mother, who 
was greatly pleased. The chief insisted that it was not right for him 
to stay with the red men, and three braves returned him to the set- 
tlement, but he escaped from them. This time the squaw concealed 
him, but he was at length seen by the chief, who said he must go back 


to the whites. The boy thought the Indians were no longer willing 
for him to be among them, and he made no further attempt to return. 
This time he was claimed by a German woman who had lost a son, 
although he did not have a scar from the bite of a rattlesnake, such 
as was on the foot of her own child. The returned captive was six 
feet four inches tall, while she was but four feet six inches. But 
she adopted him and he lived in her home a while. He went to 
school, but every day carried his rifle, knife, and tomahawk to the 
schoolroom. After some time, he built a cabin on Stony Mountain 
and lived the life of a hunter. He married Mary Kimberlin, who, 
on finding he had no bed except the floor and two bearskins, insisted 
that he adopt a more civilized way, and she carried her point. He 
became a good famer and reared his large family well. He was a 
scout in the Dunmore War and a soldier in the Revolution. This 
story is probably correct in the main, although an older Jacob Per- 
singer was the pioneer of that name on Potts Creek. 



jl^N THIS book the spelling of proper names ordinarily 
follows the style now in common use. It is very true 
I that present usage is not always the same as that of the 
colonial time. It is also true that these ancient spellings 
are a part of history. But in those days, each person who wielded a 
pen spelled a surname according to the way it sounded to him, and 
sometimes wrote it several different ways in the same document. How 
are we to choose in such a case as that? And how can we be sure of 
those instances where the deviation from modern usage is simplv 
the work of a poor speller? Nevertheless, we give below some of the 
more conspicuous divergencies: 

Abercrombie — Abercromby 

Benson — Benston 

Bourland — Borland, Boreland 

Byrd— Bird 

Byrnside — Burnside, Burnsideg 

Carlile — Carlyle, Carlisle, Carolile 

Clements — Clemons 

Clendennin — Clendening 

Daugherty — Doharty, Docharty 

Dickenson — Dickerson 

Eddy— Edde 

Feamster — Feemster, Fimster 

Gay — Guy 

Gillespie — Galaspy 

Given — Givens 

Graham — Grymes 

Hughart — Hogarth 

Kincaid — Kinkead 

Knox — Nox 

Lockridge — Loughridge 

Mayse — Mays, Maze, Mais 

McCay — McKay 

McClintic — McClintock 

McDannald — McDonel, McDonald 

McFarland — McFarlin 

Millroy — McElroy 

Montgomery — McGummery 

Moore — Moor 

Muldrock — Mu Id rough 

Rhea — Reah, Reagh 

Wan! ess — Wand less 

According to C. K. Bolton, the following Ulster immigrants came 
from County Antrim: the Arbuckles, Campbells, Clarks, Crawfords, 
Givens, Harpers, Jacksons, Jamesons, McCays; from Derry, the 
Grahams, Lockridges, Pattons, Rheas; from Down, the Carliles, 
Dunlaps, Mathewses, Steuarts; from Donegal, the Brattons, Hamil- 
tons; from Londonderry, the Kincaids; from Tyrone, the Burnsides, 
Knoxes, and Walkups. 


Certain of the families who have migrated from this county include 
names of considerable prominence. Thus James B. McCreary and 
his kinsmen, Thomas C. McCreery of Kentucky, are descendents of 
John McCreery, of the Cowpasture. Both these men have served in 
the United States Senate, and the former has twice been governor of 
his state. Dr. Charles McCreery, the first physician to remove the 
collar-bone in a surgical operation, which was done in 1813, is also 
of the same family. By way of North Carolina, we are told that 
Zebulon B., Robert B., and Robert E. Vance of North Carolina, are 
of the Vance family of Back Creek. All three served in Congress. 
The first was also governor of North Carolina, and the second was a 
brigadier general in the Confederate army. Meigs County, Tennessee, 
is named for Return Jonathan Meigs, a descendant of the Clenden- 
nins. C. C. O'Hara, an eminent geologist, appears to be a descend- 
ant of the O'Hara who once lived on the Cowpasture. William 
Bratton, one of the picked men of the Lewis and Clark expedition 
of 1803, was a grandson of Robert Bratton, of the Calf pasture. A 
monument stands over his grave in Indiana giving his services in that 
famous expedition. Colonels Robert and John McFarland, early 
pioneers of Jefferson County, Tennessee, are descendents of Duncan 
McFarland, as was also William McFarland, a congressman from 
that state. 

The remainder of this chapter is devoted to paragraphic mention, 
in alphabetic order, of a large number of the families which are more 
or less associated with the history of this county. The list includes 
names belonging to the Alleghany area and the Calfpasture. Names 
belonging quite particularly to that portion of the old Bath which now 
lies in Highland are discussed in the author's history of that county. 
And as there is a History of Pocahontas, written by Reverend Mr. 
Price, there is no attempt in this chapter to cover that part of the old 
county that lies beyond the Alleghany Front. 

The list does not assume to be exhaustive. In the case of Bath, as 
in the case of all counties once a part of the American frontier, there 
has all the while been coming and going. Names once prominent are 
now virtually forgotten. Some other names that were once here, yet 
never seem to have made more than a slight impress, are likewise all 
but forgotten. Certain names, especially those occurring in our men- 
tion of surveys and patents are given no place here, because our genea- 
logic knowledge of them is too slight. 


But some of the names still occurring in Bath would either appear, 
or would have more space, if we had been given the necessary infor- 

Some further explanation, bearing upon this chapter, will be found 
in the preface to this book. 


Robert Abercrombie was a man of enterprise and more than or- 
dinary education. He took up several large surveys, and seems to 
have lived several years on the stream named for him; Cromby's Run, 
otherwise Molly Moore's Run, but now called Thompson's Creek. 
He was one of the persons who followed Craighead to North Caro- 

_^- James Anglin lived until about 1756 at the mouth of Benson's 
Creek/which at first was called Anglin's Creek. Like so many other 
settlers he became embarrassed by debt. The Indians may have had 
something to do with his leaving, although he seems to have made a 
new home beyond the Alleghany. We read of Isaac and other Anglins 
in that quarter, and there is an Anglin's Run near the western line of 
Greenbrier. Anglin's Ferry, now Philippi, was named for WilHam 

Robert Armstrong, of Jackson's River, is mentioned by Doctor 
Walker in 1750. Another Robert Armstrong was living at the same 
time near Churchville, and so we cannot always tell which man is re- 
ferred to in the records. There even seems to have been a third Rob- 
ert. The one in Bath moved to Kentucky about 1793, but his son of 
the same name lived here several years longer, and was often foreman 
of the grand jury. He gave much attention to raising horses. Ar- 
chibald Armstrong was a neighbor and probably kinsman, who finally 
removed to Augusta. An Archibald who died here in 1800 had chil- 
dren named Robert, Ann, Thomas, Isabella, William, and Jean. Ann 
was the wife of James Elliot. 

John Baxter came to Back Creek with the Vances and removed to 
Pocahontas before 1800. 

In 1755 the mother of James Beard made oath that her boy's ear 
had been bitted off by a horse. In those days the human ear was liable 
to get its owner into trouble. It was sometimes chewed off by ani- 
mals, whether wild, or domestic, and also by the human animal in the 
brutal rights of the time. And as slicing off the lobe of the ear was 

X- d v-7/7 W 'Ke* G, Gefi*V* 


then a mode of punishment, it was not desirable to be under sus- 
picion as a convict. This James was probably a son of an older 
James. It was doubtless the one or the other who purchased the 
Crockett place on the Cowpasture in 1776. A James Beard had re- 
moved to Tennessee by 1794. 

George Benson, a maternal ancestor to the late Joseph Benson 
Foraker, of Ohio, died near Williamsville about 1809. Several sons 
of his brother Matthias, went to Monroe. 

Alexander Black, the first owner of the Byrd farm near Wil- 
liamsville, died in 1764, leaving sons named William and Alexander. 
The latter and probably the former also, went to Kentucky with the 
McCreerys and settled in the same county. The James Black who 
owned Fassifern in 1794 seems of another family. 

William Blanton, whose wife was Christina Gwin, lived a while 
somewhere near Williamsville. He moved to the vicinity of Union 
in Monroe County, where he was a prosperous and well known citi- 
zen, as well as a member of the first Methodist congregation west of 
the Alleghanies. 

John Bollar, whom tradition styles a fearless soldier, was a planter 
on Jackson's River in 1762. His daughter Elizabeth, wedded a Lewis. 
The John who married a granddaughter of William Wilson and 
gave his name to Bolar Spring, was a son or grandson. 

William Bonner, a veteran of the Revolution, was born in Penn- 
sylvania, in 1759. 

James Bourland came from Pennsylvania in 1752, and was mur- 
dered nine years later. One Thomas Murray was committed for the 
crime. Archibald seems to be a brother. His wife was Jean Jack- 
son. James left a son named Andrew, and there were probably other 

Robert Bratton was one of four brothers. Samuel remained in 
Pennsylvania, James settled in Montgomery county, and the sons of 
the fourth went to South Carolina. Robert married the widow of 
Alexander Dunlap. His sons, James and Adam, remained here, 
two sons going to Kentucky. Adam, who married Agnes, a sister to 
William Given, settled on Jackson's River. James purchased in 1779 
the farm and mill of James Rhea. Robert, son of Adam, married 
Susannah Feamster, daughter, of William. Elizabeth, a daughter 
of Robert Bratton, married Samuel Craig. 


John Brown, born in Ireland in 1743, settled at Ebbing Spring. 
He was a major in the Revolution and a justice of Bath for 33 years. 
His adult children were Joseph, Margaret, John, and Rosanna. 

Joseph and John Burns, brothers, settled in the Red Holes about 
1792, Peter, a third brother, going to Tennessee. Joseph married 
Kate Keiffer, and John married Margaret Monroe. John died in the 
Red Holes in 1805. Of his seven children, Peter, who married Eli- 
zabeth C. Monroe, in 1817, was the only son to leave posterity in 
this county. The hamlet of Burnsville takes its name from this family. 

James Burnside was a stepson to Archibald Clendennin, who 
willed him 300 acres in the "New Found Land." Burnside lived 
quite a while on the Bullpasture. He moved to Monroe, was burned 
out by Indians in 1763, and returned for about six more years. He 
died at Union in 1812. He was arbitrary and contentious, but an 
energetic trader and land operator. He had a sister Rachel. His 
descendants changed the spelling to Byrnside. 

John Byrd, a brother-in-law to John and William Dean, was kill- 
ed by Indians two years after his purchase on Jackson's River in 1754. 
Of the wife and six children who were carried away, John, Jr., is 
the only one we know to have returned. The family were trying to 
escape to Fort Dinwiddie. The son became so Indianized that it was 
quite a while before he could reconcile himself to the ways of his own 
people. He was a favorite with the red men, and made at least one 
attempt to go back to them. His wife was a Hamilton. There were 
seven children, but Andrew H., whose wife was Elizabeth Capito, 
was the only son to stay in Bath. He was twice its sheriff. A sister 
two years older than John, Jr., remained with the Indians. Another 
sister was Sarah, born in 1743. She does not seem to have been car- 
ried away, and chose John Dean as guardian. 

James Callison came from Albemarle about 1749. 

Charles Edward Cameron, born precisely twenty years later than 
Washington, was a soldier at Point Pleasant, where his only brother 
was killed. General Lafayette, who esteemed him as a personal 
friend, presented him with a gold-headed cane in 1781. He became 
a colonel. About 1790 he settled at Fassifern, which he named after 
his ancestral home in the Scottish Highlands. He died here in 1829. 
His wife was Rachel P., daughter of Jacob Warwick. The only 
son to grow to maturity was Andrew W., grandfather to Mrs. Tate 


Sterrett. But Colonel Cameron reared Andrew Gatewood, and also 
Charles L. Francisco, son of his half-sister, Mary, and afterward 
county clerk. Colonel Cameron was of very estimable character. 

James Carlile died on the Calfpasture about 1752, where he had 
for several years been living on a farm of 578 acres. He told the 
Lewises he did not want the land on account of the "barrens" in it, 
but would complete the purchase if he could have the portion of the 
survey east of the river. Otherwise he would leave, but asked pay- 
ment for his improvements. These — on 400 acres — were sold to 
William Hamilton for $87.50, against whom James, Jr., and the 
widow, Elizabeth, brought suit for the $25 still due. Robert and 
John Carlile, of the Bullpasture were undoubtedly other sons. The 
late John G. Carlisle, of Kentucky, was a grandson of Robert. 

Joseph Carpenter came from New York in 1746, and took a large 
river-bottom survey a little below Covington. Tradition states that 
a first visit was in the spring and that he started a crop of corn. On 
his return in the fall, he found that a young buffalo had broken through 
the fence and was trying to relieve the owner of the trouble of har- 
vesting. The poacher was promptly converted into steak. Carpenter 
came with a large family nearly grown, and he wished them to settle 
around him. He seems to have been living in 1776. Close by was 
another Carpenter family, that of a brother, the name of the pioneer 
appearing to be Solomon. John and Joseph were sons of Joseph, Sr., 
and Thoiiias anc'. Jeremiah of Solomon. Two daughters of Joseph 
Sr., married Jeremiah Seely and John Mann. Of a later generation 
was Samuel, who died in 1842, leaving six chldren. 

The Joseph Carpenter who came from England as an indentured 
servant, and lived about seven years with Loftus Pullin, was not re- 
lated to the other families. He settled in Little Valley about 1790, 
and reared twelve children. 

The father of John Cartmill came to the vicinity of Winchester 
during the infancy of settlement, and a part of the family homestead 
is still in the family, being owned by T. C. Cartmill, historian of the 
lower Shenandoah Valley. John was one of eleven children. His 
own sons were John, James, Samuel, and Thomas. 

Jacob Cleek seems to have come from Rockbridge. He died in 
1813, and his sons were David, Josiah, John, and Benjamin. 

Jacob Clements died in 1759. His children were nine daughters. 


Archibald Clendennin lived on the John Walker survey, and was 
buried there in 1749. He left half the farm to his son, John, then 
about five years old, who later went to East Tennessee. The boy had 
a sister, Margaret, and James Burnside was a half brother. Archi- 
bald, Jr., a son by the first wife, moved to Greenbrier and was mur- 
dered by Indians in 1763. His wife was a Ewing. Five of his six 
children were also killed, but the wife escaped to the Cowpasture. 
George and Charles seem to have been other sons. The latter gave 
his name to the capital of West Virginia. 

Hugh Coffey went to South Carolina about 1756. 

John Cowardin, who married a Lewis, rented the Fort Lewis 
plantation after the death of Colonel Charles Lewis. 

Alexander Crawford, Sr., lost his life in one of the massacres on 
Kerr's Creek. The son seems to have lived on the Cowpasture till 
after the Revolution, when he returned to Rockbridge. There were 
other Cravvfords in Bath. 

Captain Robert Crockett came to America in 1740, and died in 
Beverly Manor in 1746, leaving nine sons and a daughter. John and 
Archibald inherited the Cowpasture land, but moved to Mecklenburg 
Count}', North Carolina. John and James sold the Calfpasture prop- 
erty. Samuel, who inherited the place on Jackson's River, was a ser- 
geant at Fort Dickenson in 1763. Robert, Jr., was killed in Tenn- 
essee, in 1769, where he was a member of a company of hunters. 
Whether the celebrated Davy Crockett sprang from this family we 
do not know. There were other Crocketts in Augusta in pioneer 

William Daugherty was a blacksmith. The family was in Ken- 
tucky in 1791. 

Patrick Davis, who was living near Windy Cove in 1750, removed 
to Greenbrier. 

William Dean was a minister on the Brandywine in 
Pennsylvania. Shortly before his death, which took place in 1748, 
he purchased land in the Borden grant and on Jackson's River. The 
latter place fell to William, Jr., who sold it to his brother, John. 
The latter, who was also a minister, and in 1794 sheriff of Bath, died 
in 1811, aged about ninety. His daughters, Mary, Margaret, Alice, 
Elizabeth, Nancy, Sarah, and Jean, married, respectively, William 
BourlandAVilliam Crawford, John Kincaid, James Kincaid, James 


Anderson, James Venable, and Andrew McClung. There was also 
a son William. 

John Donally died before 1772, and his farm seems to have fallen 
to John Clark, a son-in-law. Charles, who died on Stuart's Creek in 
1733, was probably a brother. His children were Andrew, Charles 
Ann, and Catharine. Captain Andrew Donally moved to Green- 
brier about 1769, and his stockade withstood a heavy attack by the 
Indians in 1778. A few years later he moved on to Kanawha Coun- 
ty, of which he was one of the first justices. 

Alexander Dunlap came from near Philadelphia and is said to 
have been the first settler on Great River. He became a captain of 
horse in 1743, but died the following year, leaving personality to the 
then considerable value of $811.48. His house stood near the spot 
now occupied by the Alleghany Inn at Goshen. His wife was Jean 
McFarland, and his children were John, Alexander, and Elizabeth. 
The first lived in Rockbridge. The other two went to Kentucky. 
Goshen Pass was first known as Dunlap Pass, and Bratton's Run was 
first Dunlap 's Run. It was another Dunlap who gave his name to 
Dunlap's Creek. 

John Eddy moved to Botetourt before 1797. 

Thomas Feamster, a wheelwright, came from Pennsylvania and 
lived a while in Hampshire. In 1743 he was an appraiser of the es- 
tate of Christopher Graham. He died in 1797 on the farm near Wil- 
liamsville where he had been living about half a century. His person- 
ality amounted to almost $4,400. A daughter hid his will and the es- 
tate was not settled for fifteen years. The document was at length 
found by a grandson, Thomas Sitlington, who burned it. The 
daughters of Thomas Feamster were Martha, Rachael, Elizabeth, 
Susanna, and Sarah, who married, respectively, John McCreery John 
Carlile, Adam Bratton, Joseph Wallace, and Hugh Brown. The on- 
ly daughter of Sarah Brown married Matthew Wallace. The sons 
of Thomas Feamster were William and John, who moved away, the 
first settling in Greenbrier before his father's death. William was 
three times married. The second wife was a Black, the third was 
Mary Fulton. The three daughters by the first wife married and 
went to Indiana. The one son by the second was Thomas, who mar- 
ried Polly McClung, 1796, and has descendants in Tennessee. 
The sons by the third marriage are the ancestors of the Feamsters of 


Conrad Fudge, who died in Alleghany about 1849, married a 
daughter of Jacob Persinger, by whom he had fourteen children. He 
owned lands then worth $7,000, and left $1,000 to each of five sons. 

David Frame was the oldest son of John Frame, who came from 
Pennsylvania. The son purchased the Benjamin Lewis farm and lived 
on it some years, but moved to Greenbrier" about 1797. 

John Fulton was a pioneer of the Calfpasture. The Fulton 
Spring on Mill Creek seems to be associated with James or with a 
son. James died in 1753, leaving eight children. 

James, Henry, John, Robert, and William Gay, whose names ap- 
pear in the Pastures between 1745 and 1755, were brothers. Their 
sister, Eleanor, married William Kinkead. James died in 1776, leav- 
ing eight children. Several of the later Gays went to Kentucky. 

Samuel Given purchased in Beverly Manor in 1738 and was one 
of the early justices of Augusta. His son William seems identical 
with the William Given of the Wilson settlement, who died in 1793, 
leaving ten children. 

Christopher Graham, who died in 1748, was probably the father 
of John, who lived until 1771, and had eight children. One of these 
was Jean, who married Andrew Lockridge. Robert inherited a half- 
interest in his father's gristmill. Florence married her cousin, James 
Graham, a pioneer on the Greenbrier. It may have been her brother 
James, who was owning the Mitchell patent at his death in 1829. 
That he owned silver tableware besides a bed and curtains inven- 
toried at $45, indicates that he was comfortably situated. 

Naphthalim Gregory was a soldier of the Indian war and must 
have died at an early age. His widow, Mary, continued to occupy 
the farm on Back Creek. 

James Hall died about 1764, a date which suggests that he may 
have been a victim of the Indian raid in 1763. His appraisers were 
Thomas Feamster and George and John Lewis. His son Robert 
was in North Carolina in 1737, but as he purchased one-half of a 
Jackson survey five years later, he must have been one of the number 
who preferred the Augusta highlands to the Southern lowlands. 

We are in some doubt a. to who was the first Hamilton on Jack- 
son's River and Back Creek, and there may have been more than a 
single pioneer in that quarter. Tradition relates that the first Ham- 
ilton family on Back Creek used for a while an Indian camping hut. 


It is said that trees from which bark had been stripped to cover such 
shelters continued to stand until a recent day. Charles, Osborn, and 
Robert seem to be sons of this family. Major Andrew Hamilton 
moved to Greenbrier, where he was a wealthy resident, owning much 
property in lands and slaves. He had a brother William. Two 
sisters married James McCay and William Mann, and a third mar- 
ried a Bowen. 

Hugh Hicklin, who lived some years on the Millroy patent, was 
the oldest son of Thomas, of the Bullpasture, and he moved to Ken- 
tucky about 1797. Sonora Hicklin, who married the late William M. 
Boggs, of Napa, California, may have been a descendant. Mrs. Boggs 
left the statement that her great-grandfather Hicklin was in Ken- 
tucky before Daniel Boone. 

Samuel Hodge died in 1773. His sons were John and James. 
The latter was born 1747. His daughters, Sarah, Agnes, Margaret, 
Catharine, and Elizabeth, married in order, a McDonald, a Martin, 
a Mcllvaine, a Kelly, and a McCutchen. Another daugrter was 

John Henry Insminger, a blacksmith, lived a while on the Cow- 
pasture and then went to Monroe, where he remained. 

Captain William Jameson died about 1753. To John, his oldest 
son, he left his land on Jackson's River and his best suit of "close." 
Other sons were George, Andrew, and William, of whom the last 
named had the Calfpasture homestead. John left Augusta. 

James Kelso was a servant in 1759. He married a daughter of 
John Sitlington, lived nearly opposite Laverty, and was a prominent 

William Keyser purchased land on the west side of Warm 
Springs Mountain in 1797. 

Even in the infancy of Augusta the Kincaids were many. The 
John who bought land on the Calfpasture lived at New London, in 
Pennsylvania, and at once conveyed the place to David Kincaid, of 

James Knox, who died in 1772, lived a mile northeast of Wil- 
liamsville. His children were James, John, Robert, Jean, Abigail, 
Elizabeth, and Mary. The wife's name was Jean. It is stated on 
very good authority that James, Jr., an officer in Washington's army, 
was the man who gave his name to Knoxville, Tennessee, and not 


General Henry Knox, as is the usual claim. Jane, the mother of 
President Polk, was a daughter of one James Knox. That the latter 
was a kinsman is very probable. 

The LaRue family is derived from Isaac, who settled near Win- 
chester in 1738. Abraham, a son, moved to Augusta County. 

Ralph Laverty died in 1792 at the mouth of Stuart's Creek, 
where he had lived near half a century. He was a person of some 
means and prestige, and until the Revolution his name often occurs 
in the Augusta records. But he operated a still, and on one occasion 
he was fined for being too drunk to give testimony. His second wife, 
whom he married in 1764, was Jean, widow of Robert Graham. 
His sons, William and Steele, settled on New River at the mouth 
of Indian Creek. The latter was killed by Indians. The former, 
who died a natural death in 1818, was the parent of fourteen chil- 
dren. The daughters of Ralph were Elizabeth, Agnes, Sarah, and 
Martha. To the first, who married James Hamilton, of Rock- 
bridge, he left his homestead. The otrers married, in order, a Had- 
don, a Clark, and a Meek. In 1800, a slave named Chainey, be- 
longing to the widow Laverty, murdered her own child. The people 
of Bath were not willing to see the woman hanged, and she was sent 
out of the county. 

Captain John Lewis, of Warm Springs, was a son of Thomas and 
a nephew of Charles. He commanded a company at Point Pleasant, 
and was also an officer under Washington. He died in 1788, leaving 
four children, Thomas L., Elizabeth S., Charles A., and John B. 

George Lewis was unrelated to the other connection. He came 
from Lancaster County, Pennsylvania. He seems to have been il- 
literate. His sons, John and Benjamin, between whom he divided his 
homestead, went to Greenbrier. Yet the father may have been the 
George Lewis who was exempted from head-tax in 1785 because of 

James Lockridge seems to have come to the Calfpasture in 1753. 
He sold his purchase to his son Andrew and went to North Carolina. 
Andrew built a mill soon after his arrival, but in 1774 he removed 
to a large purchase north of Burnsville and died there in 1791. 
James and Lancelot were his brothers, and there was probably also a 
Robert. His own sons were John, Andrew, James, William, and 
Robert. Rev. Andrew Y. Lockridge, a Presbyterian missionary to the 


Cherokee Indians, is a descendant. Sarah, a daughter of the first 
James, married John Gay, son of James, and went to Kentucky. The 
celebrated Colonel Lockridge, of Texas, killed in Walker's filibus- 
tering expedition to Nicaraugue, is believed to have been another de- 

Humphrey Madison was a deputy sheriff in 1753 and was killed 
by Indians three years later. He must have lived on the Cow- 
pasture, as his estate was appraised by four men of the Dickenson set- 

Michael Mallow seems to be identical with the Michael whose fa- 
ther of the same name settled near Upper Tract in Pendleton County. 
The son was born about 1755 and carried off by Indians in childhood, 
but was restored. He was identified by a scar on the thumb. Mi- 
chael, of Alleghany, died in 1830, leaving seven children. 

Moses Mann, an early settler in Beverly Manor, died about 
1758, and seems to be the father of John, William, and Thomas, of 
whom the first was the administrator. The brothers William and 
Thomas settled on Jackson's River. William died about 1778. 
His first habitation was a saltpeter cave, in which a son was born. 
His children were Moses, Thomas, William, John, Jenny, and Sa- 
rah. The sons were given land in Bath and Monroe. Thomas, 
brother of William Sr., traded with the Indians and lived until 1794. 

Thomas Massie came from Frederick County. 

James Mayse, a cooper, was the first, pioneer in Bath to hold a 
civil office. He was killed by Indians, leaving personalty worth 
about $150. His sons were William, Joseph, anad Richard. The 
third, whose administrator was William Douglas, died in 1809. 
Joseph Mayse, of the Fort Lewis settlement, may have been a brother, 
yet we are not certain that there was an entire identity of surname. 
His son Joseph died in 1840 at the age of eighty-four. His brief cap- 
tivity among the Indians is elsewhere mentioned. A severe wound 
in the battle of Point Pleasant induced his mother to ride there on 
horse-back with only a negro attendant. She nursed him back to 
recovery, yet at a much later time amputation of the injured leg be- 
came necessary. He had a brother Isaac. 

James McAvoy was kidnapped from Ireland when a youth and 
sold to Robert Carlile. 

Thomas and John McAllister, of Ugly Creek, died about 


the same time — 1829. The sons of the former were William and 
Reese; of the latter, James and Samuel. 

JamesMcCay moved to Greenbrier. 

John McClung, Jr., came from Rockbridge to Thompson's Creek 
in 1751, when only eighteen years old. His wife was Sarah Mc- 
Cutchen, and his sons were Robert, John, and William. 

William McClintic purchased a part of the Bourland place in 
1774, and lived there till his death in 1801. His sons were Alexan- 
der, William, Joseph, and Robert. Two daughters married Mil- 
hollens. A brother to William was so desperately wounded at Guil- 
ford that he only partially recovered. In 1786 the court of Botetourt 
recommended him for a pension. He died soon afterward, leaving a 

John McCreery, a carpenter, was a settler of some means and 
enterprise. He died on his homestead in 1768, after dividing it be- 
tween his sons John) and Robert, both of whom were prominent in 
both civil and military life in this county before moving to Kentucky. 
The pioneer McCreery had also several daughters. Elizabeth mar- 
ried Colonel George Wilson in 1750. Wilson is mentioned in anoth- 
er paragraph. Jane married Major Andrew Donally, a pioneer of 
Greenbrier and Kanawha, and whose fort near Lewisburg was the 
scene of a battle with the Indians in 1778. Nancy — named for her 
mother, Nancy Crawford, of Dublin, Ireland — married James Hus- 
ton, who went to Kentucky in 1783 and died at his home near Cov- 
ington in 1818, at the age of ninety-five. The wife of John Mc- 
Creery, Jr., was a daughter of Wallace Estill. 

The children of John McDannald, who seems to have been a 
physician, were Samuel, John, Elizabeth, James, Mary, Rebecca, and 
William. Samuel was living on Mill Creek in 1790. John went 
to Ohio and James to Kentucky. Elizabeth was several years a cap- 
tive among the Indians. As the widow of Robert Sitlington she 
gave $1,000 to Windy Cove church. 

Duncan McFarland seems to have come from Lunenburg Coun- 
ty. Alexander and 1 William were soas. The first was a soldier of 
the Revolution. He sold to Jacob Cleck and went to North Caro- 
lina. The other absconded about 1775, leaving his father-in-law 
to rare for the wife and her seven children. 

Robert McGuffin came from Rockingham and purchased land 
below Falling Spring in 1795. 


Alexander Millroy seems to have moved to Rockbridge about 

John Mitchell was living in North Carolina in 1766. But a 
John who may have been the same died in Augusta in 1771. His 
children were Thomas, Robert, John, James, Eleanor, Mary, and 
Elizabeth. One John Mitchell died a natural death in 1783 at Da- 
vid Frame's stillhouse; according to the verdict of the coroner's jury. 

John Moore, who settled near 1 the mouth of Thompson's Creek, 
was a victim of the Indians. According to tradition, his widow 
Molly accepted a brave as her second husband, and her son, Joseph, 
fought on the side of the red men, thereby arousing great indigna- 
tion among the white people who had known him in boyhood. This 
legend may be confused as to names and details. Moore is not one 
of the rare names and it was not rare in pioneer Augusta. At all 
events the Moore name was not blotted out in Bath, and a Joseph 
Moore was living in this county in 1797. 

Richard Morris died on Jackson's River in 1805. His nine chil- 
dren seem mostly to have gone to Ohio. Isabella and Frances mar- 
ried, respectively, William Elliot and Archibald Armstrong. 

Andrew Muldrock died in 1758 or 1759, leaving a will which 
was not put on record. The widow, Jean, seems to have moved to 
the mouth of the Cowpasture. 

Anthony Mustoe came to Warm Springs Valley about 1790. 
He was associated with William Chambers in some land operations. 

In 1762 Michael O'Hara was a ward of Alexander Millroy. 

John Oliver, a large landholder and a prominent citizen, died in 
1791, leaving a son of the same name. 

Jacob Persinger was one of the earliest pioneers of Potts Creek 
and had a numerous posterity. His son Jacob died in 1841, leaving 
eleven children. To his brother Henry, who preceded him seventeen 
years, there were born ten. 

Adam Porter settled on Porter's Mill Creek shortly after the 
Revolution, and built a gristmill. Three son were Robert, Reese, 
and Adam. 

John Putnam was born in Massachusetts in 1764, and came to 
Stuart's Creek at the age of thirty. As Jeptha Putnam he was a fif- 
er in the Revolution when a boy of thirteen. 

Michael Rainey moved from the upper Cowpasture to Indian 


Creek and ended his days there. He seems to have had no children. 

John Ramsey, who married the widow of Robert Gay, purchased 
the Coffey place. 

William Renick owned the Benson farm for seven years before 
moving to Greenbrier, and may have lived on it. 

William Rhea died on Mill Creek in 1801, after having lived 
there at least thirty years. His sons were William and John. To a 
grandson he left a copy of "Whitefield's Sermons." 

James and William Scott apear to be brothers. The latter died 
in 1751, and the widow married Joseph Carpenter, the guardian of his 
children. Elizabeth Scott, who died in 1841, was an aged widow who 
left $200 to the Presbyterian church at Covington. 

Andrew Sitlington, who came to America before 1760, and to the 
Cowpasture soon after 1766, lived chiefly on the Craighead farm till 
his death in 1804 . Tjo relatives and friends he left sums amounting 
to $3,000. Like his brother Robert he had no children. A third Sit- 
lington was John, who lived at the mouth of Stuart's Creek. Wil- 
liam and James were his sons. The latter was killed in the battle of 
Falling Spring, though not, it is said, until he had slain two of the 
foe. His scalp, identified by its yellow hair, was recovered. William, 
who died in 1772, has many descendants, although the surname has for 
several decades been extinct both in Bath and Highland. The Sit- 
lingtons were people of much thrift and prominence. 

James Sloan, a neighbor, to the McClungs, married a daughter of 
John Sitlington. 

James Stuart gave his name to the stream first known as Stuart's 
Mill Creek. He was probably a brother-in-law to Ralph Laverty, 
and was killed by Indians in 1757. James, Ralph, and John were 
then minor children. James and Ralph went to Tygart's Valley, 
where the former died in 1777, probably while in militia service. 
Robert, who was living on the patent in 1789 and keeping a store, 
was probably the oldest son. 

Van and Leonard Swearingen, living on Mill Creek in 1790, 
seem to be descendants of the Van who was living in Berkeley Coun- 
ty in 1 738. 

Thomas Thompson came from Delaware about 1749, and set- 
tled on the stream which now bears his name. He was guardian of 
James Stuart, Jr. He died about 1760, perhaps another victim of 


the red man. Edward, the administrator, seems to be a brother. 
There were a William and a younger Thomas. Robert, a soldier at 
Point Pleasant, was born in 1758. Joseph, living in 1781 on the 
Botetourt section of Jackson's River, was probably of a distinct fam- 

The surname Usher calls up a romance, of which our knowledge 
is all too fragmentary. One Edward Usher wedded the only daugh- 
ter and sole heir of a member of the English aristocracy. After a 
few years she was left a widow and sought a reconciliation with 
her father. She was walking toward his mansion, leading her chil- 
dren, when he drove by. The parent merely tossed her a coin with * 
the remark that that was all the brats should have of his property. 
In some unknown manner, the three daughters came to the Dicken- 
son settlement. In 1745, James Knox, as guardian of Ann Jenny 
Usher, executed the first fiduciary bond on record in Augusta Coun- 
ty. She married Loftus Pullin, of the Bullpasture. Martha married 
Colonel John Dickenson, and Margaret married William Steuart of 
the upper Cowpasture. Steuart, an educated Scotchman, came to 
America when about twenty years old, but the ship he took passage 
with was captured by pirates and he was set ashore with nothing at 
all but a piece of canvas. All three had families. There was al- 
most certainly a brother, who must have emigrated from this region. 
The aristocratic grandparent finally relented and sent an agent to 
America, but the sisters did not know of it till afterward, and do not 
seem to have been much interested in the matter. 

Samuel Vance came to Mountain Grove by 1765, and lived there 
till his death in 1807. His children were James, Benjamin, Ally, 
Allen, Patsy, Nancy, Sarah, and Elizabeth. John would appear to 
be a brother to Samuel. 

James Waddell bargained for his survey on the Cowpasture in 
1743. He fell into debt to a number of people and betook himself 
to Pennsylvania in 1747. Robert Bratton attached a mare. Laverty 
was his security to John Scott on a note of $21.86. Scott brought 
suit, and Laverty petitioned that he might be allowed to patent Wad- 
dell's survey, the face of the note and the purchase price of the land 
being nearly the same. This was granted, and a valuation of the 
improvements was made by McCay, Cartmill, Stuart, and Adam 


Thomas Wallace came from Deleware in 1781, purchased the 
upper half of the McCreery homestead, and died on it in 1799. His 
children were Matthew, David, Josiah, John, Benjamin, Joseph, 
Thomas, Polly, and Nancy. Matthew, born in 1772, is the ancestor 
of the Wallaces of Bath. General W. H. L. Wallace, killed in the 
Battle of Shiloh in 1862, sprang from another branch. 

James Ward, born about 1727, lived some years at Warm 
Springs where he kept a tavern. He was a lieutenant, and was a 
brother-in-law to Sampson Mathews and Matthew Arbuckle. He 
removed to Anthony's Creek in 1769. John Ward, excused from 
poll tax in 1768, seems to have been his father and to have lived with 
him at Warm Springs. Colonel William Ward, the oldest of the 
seven children of James, was taken by Indians near Fort Dinwiddie, 
but was restored. He was ai justice of Greenbrier and otherwise a 
leading man there. He finally removed to Ohio, where he founded 
the city of Urbana in 1805. Captain James Ward, the second son, 
was killed at Point Pleasant. 

William Warwick came from Williamsburg and married Eliza- 
beth Dunlap. His sons were Charles and John. The latter was a 
scout in the Indian war and went to Kentucky in 1789. Captain 
Jacob Warrick, a son, was killed at Tippecanoe, and Warrick Coun- 
ty, in Indiana, is named for him. General Harrison complimented 
his company by saying he had never seen a finer body of men. Major 
Jacob Warwick owned for a while the Fort Dinwiddie farm. He 
moved to Pocahontas about 1800. Three sons-in-law were Charles 
E. Cameron, Sampson Mathews, and William Gatewood. 

Joseph Watson died in the spring of 1747, and the widow mar- 
ried John McCapen. In the inventory of Watson's effects is the 
first mention in Augusta of knives and forks, their value being fifty- 
eight cents. 

Elisha Williams came from Frederick County. Hazel Wil- 
liams, whose wife was Rachel Cauley, was a miller on Lick Run in 

William Wilson, of Bolar Run, came from Brandywine Creek in 
Pennsylvania about 1749. Stephen Wilson was a neighbor and kins- 

George Wilson seems to have been a man of much energy and 
influence and to have had some enemies. He acquired several widely- 


separated surveys, but appears to have lived at Green Valley. Dur- 
ing the Indian war he commanded a company of militia. About 1763 
he removed to the west of Pennsylvania and settled near where he 
had campaigned in the Braddock war. After the Revolution began 
he was lieutenant colonel of the Eighth Pennsylvania, but died in that 
service in 1777. 

Archibald Withrow was born in 1773 and died at the age of sev- 

Peter Wright settled on the site of Covington and had a grist- 
mill. Fort Young was built on his homestead. He died about 1758, 
and his son of the same name was his executor. 


Page 7, line 14: Read were, not are. 

Page 16, line 25: Read Alexander not William. 

Page 35, line 1 : Read purchases, not purchasers. 

Page 40, line 27: Read Thomas C. McCreary, not McCreery. 

Page 41, line 5: According to very recent information, these 
McFarlands were not discended from Duncan. 

Page 72, line 1 : Read $7.84, not $5.00. 

Page 92, line 32: Omit the 

Page 93, line 10: Read $50, not $30. 

Page 100, line 18: Read "Deficalty," not "Deficasy." 

Page 102, line 36: Read principles, not principals. 

Page 1-95, line 7: Read John Byrd, Jr., not Boiven. 

A few other errors are quite slight and therefore are not men- 
tioned here. 


NOTE: The topics beginning on pages 27, 36, 106, 111, 128, 
153, 168, and 170, contain numerous proper names arranged with 
one exception in alphabetic order. These names are not repeated 
in the present index. 

Abercrombie, Robert 188 

Act of Assembly, 1790 107 

Alleghany, Naming of 176 

Alleghany, Formation of 176 

Alleghany, Physical Geogra- 
phy 176 

Alleghany, Statistical 177 

Alleghany, Industrial 177 

Alleghany, Scenic Features ..178 
Alleghany, Organization of... 180 

Alleghany in War of 1861 182 

Alleghany, Justices, 1823-1852.180 
Alleghany, Early History of 

181, 182, 184 

Anglin, James 188 

Animals and Plants 6 

Armstrong, Robert 188 

Augusta County IS 

Augusta in 1783 78 

Bailey, Ann 99 

Bath Alum 49 

Bath, Form and Size 1 

Bath, Boundaries 1 

Bath, Organization of 108 

Bath, Curtailments 134 

Bath, Magisterial Districts ...138 

Bath, Valuation, 1860 138 

Bath, Progress, 1790-1860 139 

Bath, Squadron 146 

Bath, Modern 172 

Bath, Tourists 172 

Bath, Statistical 174 

Bath, Pioneer Families 186 

Bath, Soldiers in Revolution 

95, 98 

Bath, Officers in Revolution 

95, 96, 97 

Bath-Pendleton line, 1793 134 

Baxter, John 188 

Beard, James 188 ' 

Benson, George 189 

Black, Alexander 189 

Blanton, William 1 89 

Blowing Cave 9 

Bolar Spring 45 

Bollar, John 189 

Bonner, William 189 

Botetourt County, Formation of 54 

Bourland, James 189 

Bratton, Robert 41, 189 

Brown, John 190 

Burns Family 190 

Burnside, James 190 

Byrd, John 190 

Calfpasture, Position of 167 

Calfpasture, Early Officials. . .167 
Calfpasture, Lewis and Patton 

Survey 167 

Calfpasture, Pioneer Settlers 

Calfpasture, Emigrants from.. 169 

Callison, James 190 

Cameron, Charles E 190 

Carlile, James 191 

Carpenter, Families 191 

Cartmill, John 191 

Chesapeake & Ohio R. R 179 

Church Buildings, 1860 138 

Cleek, Jacob 191 

Clements, Jacob 191 



Clendennin, Archibald ...40, 192 

Clifton Forge 180 

Climate 6 

Cloverdale 162 

Coffey, Hugh ....192 

Confederate Soldiers, Roster of 152 
County Government, Colonial. 52 

Courthouses 136 

Covington 179, 181 

Covvardin, John 192 

Craighead, Alexander 67 

Crawford, Alexander 192 

Crockett, Robert 192 

Daugherty, William 192 

Davis, Patrick 192 

Dean, William 192 

Dickenson, Adam and John... 38 

Donally Family 193 

Dunlap, Alexander 193 

Ebbing Spring 9 

Eddy, John 193 

Feamster, Thomas 193 

Flag Rock, View From 8 

Fort Lewis Settlement 19 

Frame, Daniel 194 

Frenqh and Indian War 79 

Fort Dinwiddie 96 

Fudge, Conrad 194 

Fulton, John 194 

Geology 4 

Given, William 194 

Gregory, Naphthalim 194 

Graham, James 194 

Hall, James 194 

Hamilton Family 194 

Healing Springs 45, 49 

Hicklin, Hugh 195 

Hodge, Samuel 195 

Hot Springs 44 

Hot Springs, Town of 47 

Hot Springs, Walker's Visit to 

62, 78 

Immigrants, Ulster Homes of .40 

Incidents, 1790-1860 135, 139 

Indian Names 14 

Indian Legend 45 

Indian Raids, 1756-59 82 

Indian Raid, 1763 84, 85 

Indians, Relations with 79 

Indians, Defense against 80 

Jackson Family 39 

James River and Kanawha Ca- 
nal 179 

Jameson, William 195 

Justices, 1791-1823 136 

Kelso, James 195 

Keyser, William 195 

Kincaid Family 195 

Knox, James 195 

LaRue Family 196 

Laverty, Ralph 196 

Law and Order 69 

Legal Documents 71 

Letter by Andrew Lewis 86 

Letter by Andrew Sittlington . 87 

Letter by Charles Lewis 88 

Letter by John Dickenson ....100 

Letter by W. Chambers 138 

Letter by Robert Bratton 142 

Lewis Family 196 

Lewis, John 14, 15 

Lewis, Charles 92 

Lewis Land Grant 15, 23 

Litigation 69 

Licpjor, Petition against 140 

Lockridge, Andrew 196 

Madison, Humphrey 197 

Mallow, Michael 197 

Mann Family 197 

Mann's Fort, attack upon ... 84 

Marriage Bonds, list of 128 

Marriage Formalities 127 

Massie, Thomas 197 

Mathews, Sampson and Geo. .162 
Mayse Family 197 



Mayse, Captivity of Joseph... 85 

McAvoy, James 197 

McCallister Family 197' 

McCay, James 198 

McCIung, John 198 

McCIintic Family 198 

McCrary, John 40, 198 

McDonnald, John 198 

McFarland, Duncan 198 

McGuffin, Robert 198 

Meadow Lake 9 

Millboro Springs 49 

Militia System 69 

Millroy, Alexander 199 

Mineral Waters, Nature of... 42 
Mineral Springs of Cowpasture 49 

Mitchell, John 199 

Money in Colonial Times ... 71 

Moore, John 199 

Moravian Missionaries 76 

Morris, Richard 199 

Mountain Ranges 2 

Mountain Passes 3 

Muldrock, Andrew 199 

Muster Roll, Wilson's Company 86 
Mustoe, Anthony 199 

O'Hara, Michael 40, 199 

Oliver, John 199 

Paths, aboriginal 56 

Pennsylvania Road 62 

Pensioners of Revolution .... 98 

Persinger Family 184, 199 

Petition of 1727 18 

Petition of 1779, Signers of... 106 

Petitions of 1779-1788 104 

Pioneer Settlement Areas .... 36 

Pioneer Conditions 62 

Pioneer Houses 66 

Pioneer Costume 63 

Pioneer Taverns 51 

Pioneer Occupations 66 

Pioneer Stores 52 

Pioneer Farming 66 

Pioneer Mills 52 

Pioneer Prices 73 

Pioneer Postal Service 76 

Pioneer Forts 81 

Pioneer Schools , 69, 170 

Plantations 71 

Point Pleasant Expedition ... 89 

Point Pleasant, Battle^of 90 

Pontiac War 83, 85 

Population Figures 135, 174 

Porter, Adam 199 

Powder Mills 75 

Presbyterianism 67 

Prices, 1781 97 

Processioning 65 

Public Land, Methods of Ob- 
taining 22, 23 

Putnam, John 199 

Rainey, Michael 199 

Ramsey, John 200 

Rangers, Dickenson's 86 

Renick, William 200 

Revolution, Three Stages of 

94, 96 
Revolution, Local Events .... 96 
Revolution, Bath Soldiers in . 94 

Rhea, William 200 

Rivers of the Pastures 13 

Roads, Pioneer 56 

Road Overseers, 1748-88 ... 60 

Rocky Springs Church 170 

Rubino Spring 45 

Scenery 7 

Schools, Petition on 140 

Scotch-Irish Settlers 11 

Scott Family 200 

Selim, the Algerine 101 

Sheriffs, 1823-61 137 

Sittlington Family 200 

Slavery 139 

Sloan, James 200 

Society, Grades of 64 

Society, State of 67, 69, 76 



Soils 57 

Spottsylvania County IS 

Spottswood's Expedition 10 

Stranger, A Mysterious 141 

Stuart, James 200 

Suit, Mayse vs. Lewis 26 

Surnames, 1782-3 Ill j 

Surnames, 1791 118 

Surnames, 1913 122 

Surveys and Patents, Lists of . 27 

Terrill Brothers 143 

Trompson, Thomas 200 

Toryism 98 

Usher, Edward 201 

Vance Family 40, 201 

Vanstavern Story 184 

Waddell, James 201 

Wallace, Thomas 202 

War of 1861, local incidents of 

143, 147 

War of 1861, War Justices ..143 
War of 1861, Local Document- 
ary History 144, 182 

War of 1861, Jones' Raid ...149 

Ward, James 202 

Warm Springs 44, 49 

Warm Springs, Town of .... 48 
Warm Springs Valley, Settle- 
ment of 46 

Warm Springs, Description of 50 
Warm Springs, Strother's Eu- 
logy 50 

Warwick, William 202 

Water-cdurses 4 

Watson, Joseph 202 

Whiskey War 133 

Williams, Elisha 202 

Wilson, William 202 

Wilson, George 202 

Windy Cave Church 67 

Withrow, Archibald 203 

Wright, Peter 203 

f/',AR 1 2 1952